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Human Learning and Development - Literature review Example

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The author of this paper "Human Learning and Development" describes the theories of human cognitive progress, which are Albert Bandura’s behaviorist approach, Erik Erikson’s psycho-social theory, Jean Piaget’s cognitive perspective, Roger’s humanistic study…
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Human Learning and Development
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Download file to see previous pages The ideas of social education (or, more precisely, education-in-environment ) were articulated in earlier Rousseau’s writings:” All children are perfectly designed organisms, ready to learn from their surroundings so as to grow into virtuous adults. But, due to the malign influence of corrupt society, they often fail to do so” (Astington et al, 1988, p.56). The most effective path of child education was the removal of the child from “from society and alternately conditioning him through changes to the environment and setting traps and puzzles for him to solve or overcome” (ibid, p.57).
Albert Bandura and the other founders of behaviorism took this idea for their developmental theory. The Social Learning (ibid) approach focuses on the roles of the enviromnet and the influences of social on life-span development. From this viewpoint, learning is almost the same as development, as it involves new experiences and activities. Human personality and thoughts are a result of experiences the individual faces, so Bandura and Skinner hold that human-being are a product of the environment (Gopnik, 1990). Furthermore, Bandura also optimized the educational model and adjusted it to a behaviorist approach. Operant conditioning, which includes punishment and reinforcement, is considered the most applicable in present-day school settings, as its modus operandi is quite simple and effective in terms of dealing with 6-8-year-old children. Briefly, positive reinforcement involves adding positive stimuli to the child’s perception (praising, rewarding the child with excellent marks). Negative reinforcement is used in case the child behaves neutrally or shows avoidance behavior – in this case, the positive stimulus is removed, but in most cases, negative reinforcement is followed by punishment, i.e. by grounding or taking away desirable objects (ibid). This simple scheme is expected to cause a child to follow common rules and be obedient within the frames of the school environment. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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