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New German spelling - Case Study Example

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Zehn Jahre nach der Einf'hrung der neuen amtlichen Rechtschreiben ist die Reform der deutschen Rechtschreibung von 1996 noch eine 'ffentliche Debatte. Das ist ein sehr wichtiges Thema f'r die deutsche Sprache. Die Rechtschreibung definiert den Gebrauch der geschriebenen Sprache, nicht nur f'r Linguisten, sondern auch f'r P'dagogen und das allgemeines Publikum…
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Download file to see previous pages Trotzdem wurde die Reform sehr kritisiert, und man stellt die Frage: Ist die neue deutsche Rechtschreibung eine L'sung f'r die deutschen Sprachler, oder ist sie ein Problem f'r alle Leute und Texte, die die klassische Rechtschreibung verwendet haben'
Das amtliche Regelwerk von 1902 regelte die deutsche Rechschreibung bis die Einf'hrung der Neuregelung. Am 1.8.1998 tritt das neue amtliche Regelwerk in Kraft. W'hrend einer 'bergangszeit durfte man nach den alten Regeln schreiben. Die lange Dauer der 'bergangszeit hat positive und negative Aspekte gehabt. Die Absicht dieser 'bergangszeit war die Reform nicht dramatisch zu machen. Dies erm'glichte die Erneuerung von Sprachlehrb'cher, W'rterb'cher und andere Ver'ffentlichungen. Au'erdem konnten die Sprachler an die neue Orthographie sich gew'hnen. Diese Situation gibt jedoch den Leute die Hoffnung, dass die alte Rechtschreibung noch mal wiedersetzen wird, und dies erlaubte die gleichzeitige Pr'senz von verschiedenen Rechtschreibungen.
Die amtliche Regelung des Ministeriums der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft enth'lt einen Regelteil und ein W'rterverzeichnis mit etwa 12.000 W'rtern. Der Regelteil hat die neuen Regeln 'ber die Laut-Buchstaben-Zuordnungen, die Getrennt- und Zusammenschreibung, die Schreibung mit Bindestrich, die Gro'- und Kleinschreibung, die Zeichensetzung und die Worttrennung am Zeilenende (Ministerium der DG 1998).
Die neue Regelung verfolgte das Ziel, die Schreibung der Wortst'mme konstant in allen W'rtern einer Wortfamilie zu machen, und die Ausnahmen zu einschr'nken (Heller 2002). Das macht die Kenntnis der Regeln einfacher f'r Sprachler. Jetzt erlaubt die Schreibung von Fremdw'rtern zwei Formen: die originale Form und die eingedeutschte Form (zum Beispiel: Geographie / Geografie, Photograph, Fotograf). Deswegen ist es m'glich, drei gleichen Konsonantenbuchstaben in Komposita zusammenzutreffen. Zum Beispiel: Ballettt'nzer (aus Ballet und T'nzer), Schifffahrt (aus Schiff und Fahrt). Trotzdem erlaubt die neue Rechtschreibung den Gebrauch eines Bindestriches in einigen F'llen (z.B. Schiff-Fahrt, Kafee-Ersatz).
Wichtige Ver'nderungen gibt es auch 'ber die Benutzung des Buchstabes '. "Der Buchstabe ' steht nur noch nach langem Vokal oder Doppelvokal, nach einem kurzen Vokal wird er durch Doppel-s ersetzt (z.B. "Fu'", "hei'en", aber: "Fluss")" (Duden 1997: 610). Man schrieb die Konjuktion dass mit ' seit der Mitte des 16. Jahrhunderts, aber in neuer Rechschreibung wird mit ss geschrieben. In der Schweiz und Liechtenstein verwendet man dass vor der Reform. Die neue Rechtschreibung k'nnte eine L'sung f'r die Ausnahme und die dialektalen Varianten sein. Trotzdem erkl'ren die neuen Regeln 'ber die ss-'-Schreibung nicht alle Zweifeln der Sprachler.
Die Reform der Rechtschreibung macht, im engeren Sinne, Deutsch schwieriger zu lernen. Diese Schwierigkeit gilt f'r Muttersprachler und Fremdsprachler, weil die Regel, die sie gelernt haben, ver'nderten. Die Leute, die deutsche W'rterb'cher vor 1996 benutzen, w'rden nicht ihre Zweifel erkl'ren. Au'erdem kann man viele B'cher mit den alten Rechtschreibung finden. Die neue deutsche Rechtschreibung hat einen Einfluss an der Sprachlehre im Ausland. Die Sprachschulen und Universit'ten k'nnten nicht die neuen B'cher, W'rterb'cher und Lehrmaterial bezahlen.
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