Disabled children in mainstream schools suffer from severe adjustment problems in practicing physical education and schools largely depend on inclusion programs for providing support for disabled children…
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Inclusion program for disabled children bestow substantial representation for both mental and physical disabilities of students in public schools and current education system in England requires innovative researches and strategies in this field. In general, the term disability is used to point toward a physical or mental circumstance that limits person’s movements, senses or both physiological and psychological activities (Sport and Persons with Disabilities, n.d, p.3). Children with disabilities find it as really hard to practice various physical activities and sports programs. In mainstream education, teachers and education professionals have often failed to ensure the participation of disabled children in physical education program. Different disabilities such as, physical disability, mental disability, developmental disability, chronic illness and external injuries cause both mental and physical pain among the children with disabilities. In general education, implementation of various inclusion programs provides innovative ideas for teachers as well the children to overcome the problems in doing physical education. It is significant to notice that disability is not a personal misdemeanor or mistake. For that reason, disabled children need active representation in physical education as well the mainstream students....
It is obvious that a collaborative effort from the part of government and non-government agencies is essential in the field of promoting physical education in disabled children. Enrichment of inclusion programs gives numerous opportunities for pupils as well teachers. Innovative teaching strategies and sufficient inclusion programs permit a teacher of physical education in mainstream school for making provision of a disabled pupil. Different types of disabilities which could affect a pupil from doing physical education and why that specific disability could affect the child in Physical education Various kinds of disabilities such as developmental, mental, physical disabilities, chronic illnesses, external injuries and mobility impairment become the barriers in doing physical education among the children with disabilities. Mental and developmental disabilities prevent the children from understanding particular physical activities or games, while physical and disability in motor development prevent their participation in particular physical activities and games. Generally, disabled children show their unwillingness to do physical education or games because of physical pain and fear. Even though disability is considered as not a crime or individual mistake, majority of disabled children in mainstream classrooms suffer from severe inferiority complex and they avoid the chances to cop up with other children. Developmental problems affect both physical and mental growth of a person. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is considered as a major developmental disorder which affects the children. Children having autism often fail to communicate with
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Inclusion is a better way of closing the gap between the two groups of children. Several factors that are clear for everyone to see include: equal opportunities, for pupils to get training or education on the subjects that they are comfortable with. According to Frederickson and Cline (2009), children must be accepted, appreciated, valued and encouraged regardless of their individual need.
According to the paper Inclusive education primarily refers to the integration of students with disabilities in the mainstream educational institutions. Many scholars believe that inclusive education is the right of all children with special needs whereas many believe that inclusive education results in the lower quality education for the students with SEN. Inclusive education has been advocated by UNESCO and major countries such as USA, Canada, and Britain among others.
Anti-social behaviour from many youngsters are closely related to their vicissitudes in the sphere of education. Although, the United Kingdom has come up with a number of special education needs policies and practices, no significant success has marked in terms of educational attainment for the pupils with learning difficulties or disabilities.
Introduction 1.1 Understanding of inclusion in education According to the UK National Association of Special Educational Needs (NASEN), “…inclusion is not a simple concept, restricted to issues of placement. Its definition has to encompass broad notions of educational access and recognise the importance of catering for diverse needs.
However, the issue of children with special educational needs, particularly due to their physical inability has become important in the recent past. Meeting the special needs of children with disabilities is often a challenge. The main challenge faced in trying to ensure all children receive equal opportunity particularly in education is lack of enough funds to meet the needs of the disabled.
Although inclusion is often seen as the movement of pupils with special educational needs from special to mainstream schools, they often then remain isolated within the new setting. Therefore inclusion within mainstream schools should also concentrate on improving interaction of pupils within the mainstream school.
Disability has been viewed almost exclusively from medical and psychological perspectives (Barton, 1996)1. This experience, which has often been supported by legislation, has come in for severe criticism, and has been rightly challenged through campaigns by people with disabilities for rights to common and equal citizenship (Quinn, 1993)2.
Teaching begins at an early age of the child development, the teaching school being classified as early childhood development, the children are first enrolled in baby class, then to pre unit and lastly to the nursery school. The next level of their education is the primary school.
This historical disadvantage has to a great extent been shaped and perpetuated by the notion that disability is an abnormality or flaw. As a result, disabled persons have not generally been afforded the "equal concern, respect and consideration". Instead, they have been subjected to paternalistic attitudes of pity and charity, and their entrance into the social mainstream has been conditional upon their emulation of able-bodied norms.
Whatever political, social, or economic orientation a person has, he/she has the right and obligation to obtain education. This is the very reason why it has been noted in Article 26 (1) of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights that "Everyone has the right to education.
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