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Knowledge Building: Theory, Pedagogy, and Technology - Essay Example

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Chapter 3: theoretical framework 3.1 Introduction This chapter describes the development of e-learning and the knowledge- building process where learners and teachers can better understand the learning process in the virtual world, facilitated by computers and Internet…
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Knowledge Building: Theory, Pedagogy, and Technology
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Download file to see previous pages The second is an evolution of pedagogy from a system based on individualised learning to collaborative learning (social constructivism).These change are further explained in this paper as part of an emerging universal knowledge-building approach that envisages to give equal access and equal authority to all, in the process of knowledge building. This chapter presents the theoretical framework concentrating on e-learning and the associated theories. The focus is placed on the knowledge building theory presented by Scardamalia and Bereiter in 2006. But in addition, other theories are also discussed and integrated including the knowledge building theory of Girvan and Savage (2010), the blended e-learning theory of Sharpe et al. (2006) and the “participatory cultures” approach of Haythornthwaite and Andrews (2007). The theoretical framework presented is one that anchors itself in collaborative learning and computer and internet-centered knowledge building (Scardamalia and Bereiter, 2006; Haythornthwaite and Andrews, 2007). 3.2 terms definitions The following terms are important in the description of the theoretical framework; each is discussed and a definition is made for their use in the context of this work. 3.2.1 E-learning Haythornthwaite and Andrews (2007) have given the following definition for e-learning: “By e-learning research, we mean primarily into, on, or about the use of electronic technologies for teaching and learning. This encompasses learning for degrees, work requirement and personal fulfilment, institutional and non-institutionally accredited programmes, in formal and informal settings. It includes anywhere, anytime learning, as well as campus-based extensions, to face-to-face classes” (p.1). E-learning is defined by Garrison (2011) as “electronically mediated asynchronous and synchronous communication for the purpose of constructing and confirming knowledge” (p.2). Moving one step further towards interactive learning, it is also collaborative in practice (Garrison, 2011). 3.2.2 Blended learning In order to adapt and develop the teaching approaches, blended learning has been a concept that play important roles where the elements of the teaching and learning process differ from the traditional style, particularly with the approaches and attitudes involved (Sharpe et al., 2006; Harriman, 2004). Blended learning is “the full integration of face-to-face and online activities” in learning (Garrison, 2011, p.75). It is also defined as “the organic integration of thoughtfully selected and complementary face-to-face and online approaches and technologies” (Garrison and Vaughan 2008, p.148). Students learning in blended learning situations, as in some traditional methods, do not play a passive role and are expected to be active in using computer technology, interacting with each other on learning tasks and showing self-efficacy to learn. Likewise, teachers have different roles in encouraging, guiding and providing student feedback to assist them in presenting their unique understandings of events (within an e-learning environment) (Akyuz and Samsa, 2009). In the context of ICT-enabled learning, the concept of blended learning has many applications. The entry of web-based systems and applications into education essentially influences educational curricula and pedagogical approach, which consequently impacts on the development of all elements of the educational teaching approaches and more importantly on students' collaboration and interaction. From the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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