The author of the research will attempt to discuss the theory that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) initiative of making tax returns easier and more affordable to process by RAL lenders has led to increase in practices of predatory lending. …
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Center of discussion in this paper is the theory as a systematic representation of a genuine problem, articulated as far as possible in mathematical terms in the natural sciences or logical (or strictly linguistic terms) in the life and social sciences. Theory basically refers to the research that leads to some conclusion regarding the hypotheses or that results in derivation of a hypothesis through experimentation. “Practice is viewed as action that treats real things: real acts, real teachers, real children, things richer and different from their theoretical representations”. Application or practice as the word suggests is application of the knowledge i.e. it is the practical aspect of the theoretical background. Since it the application that is usually important considering it is the application or practice that basically judges the theory hence it is important to integrate theory and practice. However, there is a significant gap between theory and practice. Especially, when it comes to the recent research being conducted, practitioners usually remain unaware of them, that has resulted in a widening gap between theory and practice. Hence it becomes necessary to understand the differences that exist between theory and it application in order to apply theories better to practice. Mullen et al. while discussing the theory-practice relationship explain that even though most consider theory and practice to be part of same world but even so they have different existence and we need to learn of ways to integrate the two. In their paper, they suggest three basic methods of integrating the two. The three methods mentioned are: metaphor, reflection and inquiry, and binocular vision. Regarding metaphor they state that “Metaphor can be used to capture a flexible, creative, and analytic form of integration…sees metaphor as the use of a word, phrase, or image in place of another to imply a likeness or comparison”(Mullen et al. 2005). They refer to the system where we can analyze the situation, understand the problem, interpret it in various terms so as to be able to think of different solutions to the problem and apply the solution that best suits the problem. Reflection refers to the reflective conversation with the subjects involved. Mullen et al. (2005) refers to reflective practitioner as one who communicates with the subjects involved and thus gathers information that he utilizes in practice. However, it has a limited use since not all areas can utilize the method mentioned. Besides, communication skills are limited to individual abilities and hence do not provide a sure method for bridging the gap. Binocular vision refers to the concept where theory and practice are considered as the two lenses of the same binocular. Thus, they are considered as a part of the whole and are supposed to be naturally present in any given situation (Mullen et al. 2005). Exploring the mentioned methods Mullen et al. suggest that theory and practice are not to be viewed as part of different phenomenon instead they always exist in a situation as a whole. Further, it is difficult to state whether theory follows practice or practice follows theory instead they co-exist like the lenses of a binocular. Hammond, Rosso, Orcutt, and Martin (2011) in their attempt to develop better educational practices
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