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Additionally, advancements in arts and crafts field have variations in different parts of the world. This can be attributed to the fact that art and craft activities are heavily dependent on cultural practices in a given area. According to Lees-Maffei and Sandino, “the principles that define the differences and relations between design, art and craft are subject to historical change and vary regionally and culturally” (2004, p.1). However, formal settings may incorporate different aspects of art and craft from different regions. This is in relation to some of the common arts such as music and dance. There have been some major developments in art and craft and increased applications to solve different issues either directly related or indirect. To get a clear picture of these developments it is more appropriate to focus on one particular area or country with rich applications of art and craft such as Pakistan.
Since the establishment of Pakistan as a republic in 1947, there have been many transformations and developments in the art and craft field. For example, the first five-year plan for education focused on improving creativity through art and craft (Perveen, 2011, p. 3). This prompted the government to employ art and craft professionals to ensure proper learning. However, Perveen’s article mainly focuses on primary level art and craft rather than its developments at higher education level. Nevertheless, it has contributed in evaluating the development and incorporation of art and craft in higher education by the Pakistan government. Additionally, there was adoption of a conceptual and physical platform by various institutions in a bid to support modern arts. According to Tarar major changes were experienced in 1950s following an upgrade of the Mayo School of Arts into the National College of Arts (2008, p.1). This increased awareness and focus on art and craft as a subject and course in the Pakistan education
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Acccording to the paper quality management refers to the structures in the education system that help in resolving the management issues while quality improvement refers to specific improvement processes and best practices which can be chosen by educational institutes to fit into their systems. The quality management plan needs to be supported by facts.
Introduction 11 2.2. Literature Review as a Search Method 12 2.3. Key Features of the Literature Review 14 2.4. Validity and Reliability 15 2.5. Rationale for the Use of the Literature Review for this Study 16 Chapter 3 – Method 19 3.1. Introduction 19 3.2.
Balanced Scorecard (BSC) - Definition Balanced score card is strategic performance management system which is extensively used in businesses and industries, non profit organizations and government organizations across the world for aligning business activities to the strategic vision and mission of the organizations.
One longitudinal American study among female prisoners, for example, found that the recidivism rates amongst women who had attended college programmes was about four times lower than the rate among women who had not participated in college training. (Torre and Fine, 2005).
According to the paper the policies made for higher education completely neglect the importance of colleges. Majority students from public institutions join colleges after schooling. The college education is worse than the schools and universities in Pakistan. Students hardly attend regular classes in college while on the other side they are compelled to join local learning centers where instructors prepare them for final exams.
It illustrates how a nation with a well-equipped youth with regard to art and craft develops faster industrially
The focus is on higher education, current trends, effects of the society and industrialization. It puts forth issues
As the report declares globalization and the advancement of technologies are prompting artists and designers to transform the industry into one that reflects cultural diversity. In response to globalization, new art and design collectors are establishing themselves in different places around the world.
11 Pages(2750 words)Literature review
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