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Mortality Transition - Essay Example

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This paper takes into consideration four countries, two with low mortality rate i.e. Qatar and UAE and another two, South Africa and Russia, of high mortality rate. It analyzes the changes in mortality indicators from 1975 to 2010 and the similarities between the mortality rates in the four nations…
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Mortality Transition
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Mortality Transition
The rate of mortality in many countries was unaltered up to around 1950s after which there were higher death rates than birth rates, with death rates caused mainly by epidemics and wars (Population, 2012). The 1918 and 1939-44 wars saw death rates increase sharply, interrupting a long spell of low mortality rates. Furthermore, death rates aggravated in the 1950s as a result of increased use of antibiotics; raising the crude death to heights even higher. This paper takes into consideration four countries, two with low mortality rate i.e. Qatar and United Arab Emirates (UAE) and another two, South Africa and Russia, of high mortality rate. It analyzes the changes in mortality indicators from 1975 to 2010 and the similarities between the mortality rates in the four nations.
Countries with low Mortality Rate
Crude Death Rate
1975 2012
Infant Mortality Rate
1975 2012
Life Expectancy at Birth
1975 2012
Qatar
20/1000 1/1000
145/1000 8.0/1000
61 years 78 years
United Arab Emirates
11/1000 1/1000
160/1000 7.0/1000
61 years 76 years
Countries with High Mortality Rate
South Africa
13.1/1000 12/1000
77/1000 48/1000
53.7 years 53 years
Russia
9.8/1000 14/1000
27.7/1000 8.1/1000
68.4 years 69 years
(Population, 2012)
Mortality Indicators. People die as a result of different causes, for instance, accidents, old age and illnesses among others. The elements that are used to show the variations in the population as a result of death are referred to as mortality indicators (Population, 2012). The death rates in children from 1980 to 2003 went down by 5.88/1000 from 12.88/1000 to 7.00/1000. In addition, life expectancy at birth also changed as people lived much longer in some countries like United Arab Emirates rising from 61 years to 76 years between 1975 and 2010 (Population, 2012). This is a show that there was a recognizable change in mortality indicators across this period.
Difference in Mortality in Qatar, United Arab Emirates, South Africa and Russia. The table above shows that Russia had the lowest infant mortality rate in the four countries recording a death of 27.7 children per 1000 in 1975 and a fall to 9.8 in 2010, which is also the lowest in the four. The two countries with low mortality rates made massive improvements from 1975 for their death rates reduced from an average of 15.5/1000 to an average of 2.275/1000 as compared to those with high mortality rate. The latter had 11.45 on average in 1975 and an increment of 2.9 to record an average of 14.35 per 1000 in 2010. In addition, the citizens of countries with high mortality rate had limited years to live as South Africa recorded a reduction in the life expectancy from 53.7 in 1975 to 51.6 years in 2010 (Population, 2012). This is, however, not the case in nations with low mortality rate as they recorded an increase in the life expectancy at birth of their citizens; rising from 61 years in both nations to 75.19 years and 76.33 years in Qatar and UAE, respectively.
Similarities. The four countries may have their differences in the mortality rate but they still share some similarities. For instance, in three of the four nations (Qatar, UAE, and Russia), the life expectancy at birth increased from 1975 to 2010. South Africa is the only nation that recorded a drop in life expectancy at birth from 53.7 years to 51.6 years.
Work Cited
Population Reference Bureau (2012). Web. Oct. 3, 2012. Read More
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