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MIH512-Demography and Health (Module 5-SLP) - Essay Example

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Demographic transition is the transition from a stable population with high mortality and fertility to a stable population with low mortality and fertility. During the transition, population growth and changes in the age structure of the population are inevitable Registrar…
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MIH512-Demography and Health (Module 5-SLP)
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Comparative Population Pyramid Data Dr. Shali Ramprasad 22 Dec. 2009 Demographic transition is the transition from a stable population with high mortality and fertility to a stable population with low mortality and fertility. During the transition, population growth and changes in the age structure of the population are inevitable Registrar General of India
India
The population pyramid data for India suggests that there has been steady increase in the population and would continue to increase in the coming years (1, 023, 295 in 2001 to 1,326,093 in 2020). Although, the growth rate would come down to 1.1% compared to 1.7% in 2001. The total fertility rate (births per women) has come from 3.1% to 2.7% and is expected to further go down to 2.4%. The crude birth rate (per 1,000 population) has also come down from 25 (in 2001) to 21 (in 2010) and is expected go down to 18 by 2020. Comparatively, the mortality rates have drastically come down. The infant mortality rate (per 1,000 births) has come down from 66 to 49 and expected to go down to 35 by 2020. The net migration rate remains at a constant of -0%.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base
China
The population of China has grown from 1,270,744 in 2001 to 1,330,141 in 2010, which is further expected to increase to 1,384, 545 by 2020. The growth rate had been constant for the past 10 years (at 0.5%) though it is expected to reduce to 0.2% by 2020. The total fertility rate has also been maintained at 1.5%, which is expected to increase to 1.6% by 2020. The crude birth rate has also been maintained for last 10 years at 12, which is expected to come down to 11 by 2020. The infant mortality rate has come down from 27 in 2001 to 17 in 2010 and is expected to be 13 by 2020. The net migration remains at constant of -0%.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base
United Kingdom
The mid year population of United Kingdom has grown from 59,723 in 2001 to 61,285 in 2010, which is expected to further grow to 63,068 in 2020. The growth rate has been constant and is expected to be constant at 0.3%. The fertility rate has been maintained at 1.7% constantly over the last few years and is expected to be maintained. The crude birth rate is also at a constant of 11. The infant mortality rate has been maintained at 5 for last 10 years and is expected to be down to 4 by 2020. The migration rate is maintained at 2% constantly and is expected to be maintained.
Cambodia
The mid year population here has steadily increased from 12,622 in 2001 to 14, 753 in 2010 and is expected to increase to 17, 601 in 2020. The growth rate has been maintained at 1.8% for the last 10 years but is expected to be low by 2020 to 1.6%. The fertility rate has been reduced by 0.6% in past few years and is expected to go down further by 0.3%. The crude birth rate has been reduced over the years to 26 and is expected to be as low as 23 by 2020. The infant mortality rate has been drastically reduced from 76 to 53 and is expected to be reduced to 38 by 2020. The migration rate has been at constant of 0%
In general, the data here suggests that the developed countries have been able to maintain the variables of the health indicators where as the developing countries and the underdeveloped countries are yet to match to the requirement. About 95% of the population growth occurs in developing countries. Slowing of population growth is due to global decline in fertility and increase in mortality in some regions e.g. HIV-related increase in mortality in sub- Saharan Africa. The key changes in the trend can be noticed clearly in the number of population and the growth rate. Although the developing countries are in the process of reducing their growth rate, the population seems to grow further by 2020. Most of the above said countries have been able to maintain their migration levels to the minimum, though the trend seems to increase within few years. The efforts of each country to maintain a low infant mortality rate seems to be consistent all over the world.
The significance of these changes are to utilize human resources to accelerate socio-economic growth and improvement in quality of life and bring about convergence and synergy between ongoing programs to hasten demographic, socio-economic and educational transitions to achieve rapid population stabilization. There are differences in the growth rate of population in different regions. The impact of these differences would be on health and nutritional status, education and skill development, appropriate employment with adequate emoluments, rural-urban and interregional migrations and social –economic development.
Bibliography
1. Singh, Padam, ICMR. “Trends in fertility, mortality, nutrition and health indicators”. Retrieved December 22, 2009, from
http://planningcommission.gov.in/reports/genrep/bkpap2020/23_bg2020.pdf
2. International data base, country. Retrieved December 22, 2009, from http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/informationGateway.php Read More
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