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The substitution reaction always competes with elimination reactions so to prepare Cyclohexanol in good amount, it is essential to suppress the substitution reaction. It is achievable using strong acids such as sulphuric acid whose conjugate base is a poor nucleophiles and running at high temperature to favors elimination.
Cyclohexene is a hydrocarbon of formula C6H10. It is as an intermediate in various industrial processes useful in synthesizing other desired molecules. It also helps in the synthesis of maleic acid and it stabilizes high-octane gasoline (Williamson & Katherine, pp123-178). Cyclohexene is not very stable when stored for long exposed to light and air because it readily forms peroxides.
Dehydration is the elimination reaction of alcohol; a unimolecular elimination (E1) reaction of an alcohol. This elimination reaction involves the loss of a hydroxyl group (OH‑) from one carbon and hydrogen (H) from the adjacent carbon. The overall effect of this reaction is the loss of a water molecule, resulting in the formation of a ∏-bond of an alkene or an alkyne. Dehydration is therefore the loss of water molecule (Williamson & Katherine, pp173-212). In most cases, dehydration of an alcohol requires the use of an acid catalyst and high temperature. Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) are the most commonly used acid catalysts.
When more than one elimination product can be formed, the more substituted alkene becomes the major product, which is obtained by removing a proton from the adjacent carbon that has fewer hydrogens (Schlosser, pp153-189). The more substituted alkene is the major product because it is the more stable alkene; therefore, it has the more stable transition state leading to its formation. Alkenes can also hydrate; that is the addition of water in the presence of an acid catalyst (Williamson & Katherine, pp123-178). The
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