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Paraphrasing the lab report. keep the tables and structure - Admission/Application Essay Example

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Lab Report College Abstract: This experiment uses the Fischer esterification process to synthesize an ester (ethyl propionate). To achieve this, propionic acid is reacted with ethanol in the presence of a certain catalyst, which may be H2SO4 or equivalent…
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Download file to see previous pages The H-NMR spectrum in the experiment indicated to have the same number of protons and retained the same position on the structure of the resulting Ethyl propionate. The result produced by the H-NMR and C-NMR was augmented with the results in the HMQC and COSY analysis. As a result, the yield was 62.23% of the ethyl propionate. After undertaking the spectroscopic analysis, it was observed that the product obtained was actually the intended Ethyl propionate, which suggests that the entire experiment was a success. Lab Report Results and discussion: Fischer esterification is obtained through a process involving nucleophilic substitution. The principle behind this action is that the carbonyl carbon has electrophilic properties while still having the dual nature of a nucleophilic element, similar to alcohols. The main purpose of the sulfuric acid catalyst is acting as a dehydrating agent in the experiment. The principle of water removal is through detachment of H-ions from the alcohol while the OH ion detaches from the propionic acid. The catalyst also prohibits any reverse reaction from occurring during the experiment; it is possible for reformation of the reactants to occur. On the other hand, ethanol’s role is to neutralize both the acids and increasing the Ethyl propionate produced in the experiment. ...
Figure 1 Reaction between ethanol and propanoic acid. The electrophilic nature of the carbonyl carbon is as a result of the proton transferred from the acid to the carbonyl oxygen, which induces an attack from the ethanol’s nucleophile (oxygen atom). Moreover, an activated complex forms due to the action of the H-ion transferred from the oxonium ion to the second alcohol molecule. When the hrodoxyl groups in the activated complex protonate, they give an extra oxonium ion. Finally, the ester forms from the dehydration of the oxonium molecule after which deprotonation has to occur3. Figure 2 Mechanism of acid catalyzed Fischer esterification Simple distillation is a process through which mixtures are separated based on the difference in boiling points of the individual elements making the mixture. This may be achieved by first heating the mixture into a gas phase, and condensing the produced gases into liquid in several stages. However, the products produced under this method are impure; it is not possible to use this method for separating a mixture whose elements have close boiling points. Using Raoult’s law, it is possible to calculate and determine the composition of the vapor collected, which would be the same as the base mixer at a certain temperature and pressure. However, when two or more liquids have widely varying boiling points, in most cases, the temperatures of the vapor produced vary with similar margins such that it is possible to neglect any impurities from other elements in the mixture. Rault’s law would not be applicable in such a case, and the distillation products are considered pure. In using 1H NMR, IR, 13 NMR and GC/MS it is possible to determine the structure of the resulting Ethyl propionate. The ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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