Nobody downloaded yet

Current Applications And Development Of Catalyst For The Synthesis Of Highly Functional Organic Carbonates - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Organic compounds obtained by carbonic acid and hydroxyl compound diesterification are called organic carbonates. These have diverse industrial, medical and biological applications as intermediates and solvents during lubricant, herbicide, pesticide, plastic synthesis, etc…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER92% of users find it useful
Current Applications And Development Of Catalyst For The Synthesis Of Highly Functional Organic Carbonates
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Current Applications And Development Of Catalyst For The Synthesis Of Highly Functional Organic Carbonates"

Download file to see previous pages An exhaustive review on the catalytic production of organic carbonates is lacking. The conventional procedure for synthesis of organic carbonates earlier involved toxic halogen compounds or phosgene, and later on moved to non toxic compounds such as carbon dioxide, alcohols, and epoxides. Recent catalysts include palladium, salen ligands, DBU, transition metal halides such as NiCl2, Lewis bases like Re(CO)5Br, NHC-CO2 adducts, tin, and Cu-exchanged zeolite Y catalyst. Introduction Organic carbonates are organic compounds obtained by carbonic acid and hydroxyl compound diesterification (1). The carbonates are produced in the form of diaryl, dialkyl or substituted dialkyl dialyl products depending on the type of hydroxyl compound used in the diesterification reaction. Organic carbonates have a wide variety of industrial, medical and biological applications (2). More specifically, they are used as intermediates, solvents and protective groups during the synthesis of lubricants, pharmaceuticals, herbicides, pesticides, plastics, etc. (3). Of the different kinds of organic carbonates, dimethyl carbonate is the simplest one, produced industrially from methanol through catalytic oxycarbonylation (1). A review of the literature on the catalytic production of organic carbonates reveals that comprehensive reports on the development of catalysts in the synthesis of organic carbonates is lacking. While earlier, organic carbonate synthesis with the help of catalysts required halogen compounds or phosgene, research on the synthesis of organic compounds later on was more inclined towards substituting halogens with other non toxic compounds. In recent years, research has focused on synthesizing organic carbonates from carbon dioxide, alcohols, and epoxides. Organic carbonate synthesis has thus seen a new dawn, wherein more emphasis was on green chemistry and use of reagents that are least toxic to the environment and to living organisms. The present paper aims at understanding how the use of catalysts in synthesizing organic carbonates progressed over the years. For this purpose, research reports on organic carbonate synthesis will be analyzed and discussed. The types of catalysts employed in organic carbonate synthesis will also be reviewed. The aim is to study the development of catalysts for organic carbonate synthesis, especially in the recent years. Theoretical Background Organic carbonates are formed by the diesterification of hydroxyl compounds with carbonic acid. Carbonic acid does not exist in free state. Its monoester is called hemicarbonic acid and it is formed by the reaction of carbon dioxide with alcohol. It can only be isolated in the form of salts and simple/mixed anhydrides with carboxylic acids because of its unstability. Through the esterification of hemicarbonic acid with hydroxy compounds, organic carbonates can be synthesized. These are classified into two main groups, saturated and unsaturated organic carbonates. Unsaturated carbonates include symmetrical (e.g. diallyl carbonate) and unsymmetrical (e.g. allyl methyl carbonate) organic carbonates. Saturated organic carbonates are further divided into several other categories that include aliphatic, aliphatic aromatic and aromatic. Further classification of organic carbonates is given in figure 1. Dimethyl carbonate is the simplest organic carbonate. Figure 1: Classification of Carbonates (1) Shaikh and Sivaram provided a comprehensive review of the various processes of organic carbonate synthesis. Since then, many more developments have taken place in the field. Before discussing the latest developments in organic carbon ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Current Applications And Development Of Catalyst For The Synthesis Of Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Current Applications And Development Of Catalyst For The Synthesis Of Essay)
“Current Applications And Development Of Catalyst For The Synthesis Of Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Argumentative Synthesis Essay in Becoming Functional
Ethics are the guiding principles that guide the course of actions of leaders during implementation of change (Fluker, 2009). In modern organizations, where sensationalism and
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Applications and Development of Catalyst for the Synthesis of Highly Functional Organic Carbonates
This necessitates the search for newer polymer types that are environment friendly. This can be attained through development of chemical protocols requiring less
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Proposal
Microsoft Access Applications Development
Microsoft Access delivers a relational database management system (RDBMS). It's hallmark are power, simplicity, and style. These are useful in the development of a database application in short time. Microsoft Access is a Rapid (database) Application Development tool and has all the necessary functionality required creating a database.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
It is also seen that the judges use ‘broken’ in a negative way, whereby, they say “You look like the broken Tin Man”. Franklin concludes, “sometimes looking broken is good; sometimes it’s
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Chemical catalyst
h in chemical reactions, the classifications of the process, the advantages and disadvantages of different types of catalysis, properties, developmental history and an evaluation in the contexts of different chemical processes. The 2010 Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
1- organic thin film transistor, 2- field-effect mobility for organic transistor.3- leakage current in transistors
The two electrodes are the source and drain electrodes. Between the channel and the metal gate contact, a film of insulator material is deposited. TFTs have been used in the manufacturing of TFT LCDs for
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
On the other hand, Naomi Klein, who is a Canadian author as well as social activist known for her criticism for corporate globalization explores the evolution of branding and advertising in her article titled New Branded World. Further, New York Based
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
He can initiate it by forming two teams, dividing up the class, and initiating a competition among them. This would make students active participants, creative, would support peer learning and
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
al product promotion is not something that started in recent times, many of the earliest entrepreneurs knew how to produce goods and make communicational strategies that would increased people’s awareness of their products to influence their purchase patterns. In the United
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Functional and non-functional requirements in Software development
Some of the most crucial factors to be put into close consideration in the development of a system are the functional and non-functional requirements (Aggarwal, 2005). In simple terms, functional requirements entail a set of features or characteristics that define how a
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Current Applications And Development Of Catalyst For The Synthesis Of Highly Functional Organic Carbonates for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us