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Diagnostics: How Technology Works - Essay Example

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Diagnostics: How Technology Works Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), amplifies the nucleic acid of the pathogen and provides precise, quick and cost-effective diagnosis. It is utilized in the diagnostic kits to detect numerous pathogenic bacterial and viral strains…
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Download file to see previous pages Between F1c (B1c) and F2c (B2c). The LAMP assay is highly specific (Mori & Notomi, 2009). In LAMP, loop primers LF and LB, are considered to anneal at loop configuration. This is responsible for greater sensitivity (Mori & Notomi, 2009). When all the six regions are accurately recognized by the primers, amplification onsets. Bacillus stearothermophilus (Bst) DNA polymerase, resistant to higher temperature is used in the LAMP reactions. LAMP measures real-time turbidity by photometer (Mori & Notomi, 2009). Turbidity occurs as the process generates insoluble magnesium pyrophosphate in the course of amplification. Turbidity analysis in LAMP quantifies the quantity of DNA in the given sample (Mori & Notomi, 2009). The method is modified by exploiting the principle of fluorescence; calcein binds with magnesium pyrophosphate in a positive reaction (Mori & Notomi, 2009). Although LAMP primers are difficult to design, but the procedure is fast and efficient to use. Some of the free software for designing LAMP primers are Primer, Explore, Fujitsu, Tokyo, Japan (Mori & Notomi, 2009). The latest software is capable of considering mutations in target area and therefore can be used to modulate the design for mutation sensitive or mutation insensitive primers. LAMP is used to detect Salmonella, Legionella, Listeria, E. coli, Campylobacter, Mycobacterium, Plasmodium falciparum (Mori & Notomi, 2009). Diagnostics: Application To Solve A Particular Problem One of the most dreaded diseases of the present epoch is malaria, a parasitic infection induced by Plasmodium falciparum. As malaria could be epidemic and spread rapidly in the community, an efficient, rapid and highly sensitive test kit is essential. LAMP assay has emerged as the key solution (Poon et al, 2006). Heat-treated blood samples were tested for turbidity using LAMP assay. LAMP assay directly detects the presence of P. falciparum from the blood samples as well as quantify the parasite (Poon et al, 2006). LAMP assay does not cross react with the DNA samples obtained from various species such as P vivax, P malariae or P ovale or hyman DNA (Poon et al, 2006). LAMP is used efficiently for the detection of Salmonella, capable of causing gastrointestinal disease in humans. LAMP is capable of determining food borne pathogen Escherichia coli, demonstrating VT gene (Mori & Notomi, 2009). LAMP detects Campylobacter coli, Norovirus (NoVs), a food borne pathogen responsible for gastrointestinal infection could be detected by an expensive PCR but now with the advent of LAMP, with sensitivity to differentiate genotype GI and GII (Mori & Notomi, 2009). LAMP is now-a-days used for the detection of influenza virus, tuberculosis with great degree of differentiation between M. tuberculosis, M. avium and Mintracellulare. LAMP is efficient to detect HIV, cholera (Mori & Notomi, 2009). Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) responsible for sleeping sickness which otherwise is neglected could be determined with the sensitivity as small as 0.001 parasites/ml of blood using repetitive insertion mobile element (RIME) sequence as the target. LAMP has been evaluated for the presence of dengue virus, Ebola virus, Chikungungya virus and West Nile virus (Mori & Notomi, 2009). Diagnostics: Advantage of New Technology Over The Other/ Existing Classical method of diagnosis involves microscopic examination and culture method prevalent even today to provide complete ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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