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Naloxone's Drug Profile - Essay Example

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Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Naloxone’s Drug Profile Section 1: Part One Naloxone helps in reversing opioid effects like hypotension, depression, and respiratory sedation. It can also reverse constipation associated with opioids. When administered orally, Naloxone has a bioavailability ranging from 1.9 per cent to 2.2 per cent for the 20 milligram and 120 milligram oral doses…
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Naloxones Drug Profile
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Download file to see previous pages Many greater doses are needed when using oral administration for any pharmacologic effect. Naloxone is absorbed in the liver, mainly through glucuronide conjugation, and eventually excreted from the body system in urine. Part Three Because of the penetrating biotransformation in the liver, Naloxone is ineffectual when taken orally, and because of this, it is dispensed exclusively for parenteral use (Robertson et al 512-5). Section 2 Part One Naloxone is available in both parenteral and oral formulations. In Australia, Naloxone comes as a sterilized solution for intramuscular, intravenous, and subcutaneous administration in three strengths (1milligram, 0.4milligram, and 0.02milligram) for every milliliter in the sterilized solution. Every milliliter of the one-milligram strength has 8.35 milligrams of NaCl. In Australia, Naloxone may be referred to by different brand names such as TARGIN or buprenorphine. They are offered in four strengths, which are 5/2.5 milligrams, 10/5 milligrams, 20/10milligrams 40/20 milligrams, and TARGIN tablets that come in boxes that have blister packs of 20 to 28 tablets. Packs of 20 tablets are only available until current stocks deplete (Kelly and Koutsogiannis 375) Part Two A Naloxone hydrochloride is injected either intravenously, intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or orally. Intravenous administration has proved to work faster than all the other forms of administration, hence its recommendation for use in emergency cases. As such, it is preferred in emergency circumstances. In intravenous infusion Naloxone, hydrochloride may be diluted in dextrose injection 5 per cent or sodium chloride injection 0.9 per cent (O’Malley-Dafner and Davies 212). Products from parenteral drugs ought to be examined visually for any complication such as discoloration prior to administration. Naloxone hydrochloride dose should not be mixed with any alkaline solution, preparations containing bisulfite, high-molecular-weight anions, metabisulfite, and long-chain. There should be no addition of chemical agents or drugs to this solution unless one knows its outcome on the solution’s chemical and physical and stability. Section 3 Part One After a parenteral administration, Naloxone quickly disperses in the body system, freely crossing the placenta. The binding of plasma protein follows, but has been reported to be rather weak. Although the principal binding component is plasma albumin, plasma constituents also undergo naloxone binding. Part Two The drug’s distribution volume in plasma, which is 3litres per kilogram (this is more or less equal to 210 litres for a 70kilogram person versus five to six liters of blood in the same person, which would seem rather large). However, to get transported, the drug is usually bound to plasma proteins for transport (Martin 415). Naloxone is 61.5 per cent in fetal plasma and 54 per cent protein bound in adults. Part Three The usual adult dose is 0.4 to 2 milligram per dose of intravenous, and intramuscular, or subcutaneously administration and it may sometimes be repeated at two or three-minute intervals. Therapy is done if there is no response after accumulative dose of 10 milligrams. Naloxone is given intracisternally in loading doses. 0.1 milligram/kg/dose is given to children and infants who are less than or equal to five years or less than or equa ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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