Nobody downloaded yet

The affects of Agent orange - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Your name Your Module name 6 March 2012 The effects of Agent Orange Agent Orange is a common name for one of the six “Rainbow Herbicides” and defoliants which were used by the United States army during the war in Vietnam. The herbicide was a part of the chemical warfare, the goal of which was to destroy the crop lands and defoliate certain areas of the country…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97% of users find it useful
The affects of Agent orange
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"The affects of Agent orange"

Download file to see previous pages Talking about the chemical composition of the Agent Orange, it is a 50:50 mixture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (Scheme 1). Scheme 1: Phoxyacetic acids that form Agent Orange (Claus and Walters, 148). Series of studies were undertaken in order to evaluate potential effects of Agent Orange and its production by-products on health. Let alone the mixture that form Agent Orange, 2,4,5-T is highly toxic and there is a substantial amount of evidence regarding its possible effects on health and environment. In late 1960s it was revealed that 2,4,5-T usually contained dioxin (TCDD), which was more toxic then 2,4,5-T. This information allowed to explain a number of properties attributed to Agent Orange. Scheme 2: Production of Agent Orange components and unwanted side reactions (Claus and Walters, 148). 2,4,5-T was synthesized by Robert Pokorny in 1941. Subsequently the compound was extensively studied and patented as a weed killer. Later, the spectrum of its applications increased as well as the amount of publications and patents regarding this product. 2,4,5-T was in production from 1950 to 1979. During that time Dow Chemical was the largest company producing this chemical for agricultural purposes. Taking the production from the lab into industry led to the formation of the highly toxic dioxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a consequence of a side reaction (Scheme 1). The first step of the process is the reaction between 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene and sodium hydroxide to afford 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxide (2,4,5-TCP)(Scheme 1). The formed product would then react with chloroacetic acid at 1400C to yield 2,4,5-T. Temperature control is critical for both processes, because at 1600C 2,4,5-T can participate in a self-condensation reaction leading to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)(Heaton 1996). In the second half of the 20th century no precautions were taken to eliminate the formation of this dioxin. As a result, seventeen thousand people were exposed to this dangerous by product in Italy during an accident on a chemical plant near Seveso in 1976 (Eskenazi, et al., 2003). When such precautions were taken it was difficult to maintain the required temperature in the industrial scale reaction vessel. For this reason dioxin was a consistent by product in the 2,4,5-T production. Its quantities were measured in parts per million, and according to initial legislation had to be no higher than one part per million. Later the limit was pushed to 0.1 ppm and 0.01 ppm in the United States and UK respectively. In order to meet this requirement better temperature control was introduced and the formed dioxin was removed from 2,4,5-T (Hay 160). Talking about toxicology of dioxin and the components that form Agent Orange, according to Arthur Galston’s extensive review published in 1979, TCDD in trace quantities was able to bring up serious health issues in test animals. Dioxine is the primary toxic compound of Agent Orange. Its presence was able to promote chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), soft-tissue sarcoma and both Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s types of lymphoma. Exposure to Agent Orange leads to increased chances of acute myelogenous leukemia in the children of the US soldiers who served in Vietnam (Schuck 19). Another study, conducted in 1969 exposed the toxicity of ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“The affects of Agent orange Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1444315-the-affects-of-agent-orange
(The Affects of Agent Orange Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 Words)
“The Affects of Agent Orange Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/chemistry/1444315-the-affects-of-agent-orange.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Media affects
Unfortunately, the media has been used to influence wrong judgment in respect to exaggeration of facts. It is not a secret that in many historical events media has been influenced by the military, money and political inclinations to act as a weapon against peace and stability.
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Topic picked from the book clockwork orange
The novel was written to show the violent nature of human beings, and how human beings have the ability to choose between good and evil. It also relates how evil comes about, one being idle and free. Characters in the fictional novel include; Alex, George, Pete, Dim, P.
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
Perceived managerial discretion and market competition (Principal-agent problem)
The officers may be reluctant to invest in the high-risk projects because this might put their job security in question. For this reason, there is a conflict of interest which leads to the principal-agent problem. A review of the principal-agent problem is useful in terms of creating an organizational structure which synergizes principal’s interest with the agent’s interest.
15 Pages(3750 words)Research Paper
Hotel Resorts in Orange County California
The research paper begins with introducing the county’s hotels and resort bases and the services that are provided to the tourists. The report also details the various challenges that the county faces during its operations in California’s tourism industry. The facts that over the years have brought success to Orange County will also be proficiently dealt along with identification of its core areas of operations.
20 Pages(5000 words)Research Paper
Clockwork Orange
The main Character, Alex, happens to be a charismatic, sociopathic criminal interested in classical music, rape as well as ultra-violence. This film archives the terrible crime extravaganza of Alexi’s gang, his
1 Pages(250 words)Movie Review
Change Agent
The United States is facing an energy crisis due to the fact that the country’s infrastructure is highly dependent on petroleum
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper
Television Affects on Society
Stephen Aoun, in the article Are You a Telly Tubby claims that the viewing habits are considered to be as a result habituation (200). Most television programmers have recognized children as the most viable target for their
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
Processing and Production of orange in California
The difference between the two orange growing regions in the US is that their purpose. Oranges from Florida are grown for processing mainly to juice while those from California are
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper
Performing Purchasing Agent Duties
In addition, specific details are also required for the standards and the criteria that the client has specified to ensure quality assured hardware and software. It is
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper
Performing Purchasing Agent Duties
the Waters Inc company is set in such away that the audience can make emmotional connection and move to an extent of identifying with the correspondents and go along for the ride. Over a long period of time Waters Company has been known for the culture of producing quality
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic The affects of Agent orange for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us