Managing Across Cultures Contents PART ONE: Literature Review on Culture Shock and Poor Adjustment 3 Culture Shock 3 Stages of Cultural Shock 5 Coping Strategies 7 Cultural Learning Approach 8 ABC Model of Culture Shock 8 Conclusion 9 PART 2: Recommendation for Managing Culture shock and Poor Adjustment 10 Reference 15 Bibliography 16 PART ONE: Literature Review on Culture Shock and Poor Adjustment Culture Shock Culture shock can be said to be a process of initial adjustment towards an unfamiliar environment…
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The term culture shock was first coined by Kalvero Oberg (1960) in order to describe anxiety which resulted from the situation of not knowing or getting familiar with the new culture. The recent literature tends to recognise that culture shock can be applied to any new situation with regards to job, relation and also in relation to adjustment and new identity (Pedersen, 1995, p.1). Oberg has mentioned six aspects of culture shock such as strain which might occur in order to make some psychological adjustments; a feeling of loss or deprivation with relation to factors such as profession, friends, possession and status; by being rejected; confusion in knowing exactly the role, the expectation from the role, self identity, feelings and value; Anxiety, surprise, indication and disgust after knowing about the culture difference and a feeling of failure for not being able to cope with the new environment. Most of the researchers have tried and attempted to extend and improve believe of Oberg that culture shock is just a normal process of adjusting cultural stress. According to Anderson (1994), culture shock is a symptom of frustration reaction (Selmer, 1999, p. 517). Cultural shock, over the last decade has received increased attention where Jack London in one of his stories titled “In a Far Country” had stressed to the fact that visitors who visit another culture needs to be prepared to adopt new customs and leave behind old thoughts and ideas. He suggested that sojourners who temporary reside in another country should be able to seek pleasure in the given condition because of the fact that those who were unable to fit into the new culture tends to return home or die due o physical and psychological ailments. Culture shock is a costly affair for a firm because it leads to premature return of business people who are sent overseas. According to some of the research employees sent to foreign did not fail because of lack of technical skills but inability to adapt the other culture. An estimate of early return showed a range of 45% to 85% employees who returned from overseas. However some companies have experimented with short term stays like two three months and determine the potential of the employee to tolerate other culture so that at a later stage they get prepared for longer stay. Short trips tend to be cost effective as it reduces the burden of moving the family also. Brislin (1981) had identified three strategies which can be used to cope up with the new culture in terms of short visits, Unacceptance of host culture: The travellers do not make any effort to understand and learn the new culture and behaves as they are in home culture Substitution: The travellers tend to learn appropriate behaviour and response from the host culture and substitute them with the one which they use it in the known environment. Addition: The people visiting overseas add the behaviour of the host country in the present of nationals but also maintain the same behaviour when they are confronted with the same culture. Synthesis: this is a strategy which tends to combine the elements of two cultures such as dress on US and Philippines. Resynthesis: this is
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These differences arise from the different cultural environments of the new countries to which the business organization wishes to extend its business operations to. It is in this context that an understanding of different countries and intercultural communication becomes important to business organizations.
The newness of all these factors in addition to the lack of access to things and interaction with people one grows up with becomes the cause of stress and anxiety which is termed as the culture shock. Not everybody necessarily experiences the culture shock despite the clash of cultures.
Center of discussion in this paper is cultural shock as the trauma one experiences when one moves into a culture that is different from ones own home culture. There are various factors that lead to cultural shock. Some of them are differences in food, difficulty in communication, differences in customs and values, unacceptable standards of cleanliness, fear for personal safety, and so on and on.
Globalization is fostering cultural changes and is reshaping the thinking modes of people all over the world. Although this has created a lot of room for the clash of cultures, yet there also exist ways in which different cultures can inspire one another, learn from one another, and appreciate their commonalities as well as differences (Soderberg and Holden, 2002).
Apparently, an individual has to take ample time in learning the new sets of behaviors, cultural values and patterns practiced in the new area. This process is, at times, challenging especially when an individual has limited assistance from this new society.
The cultural shock is the condition that is prevalent in global economy. People, coming across from one culture to another that is vastly different from their own, experience the huge difference which is very unsettling and often find it difficult to adjust in the new environment.
The different historical and ethical framework of each country is expressed through a specific concept, which reflects the country’s historical and social characteristics – as a member of the international community; culture has been introduced in order
This unfamiliarity with the new culture makes many of those who encounter it fail to understand the factors that influence conduct of local people so that they do not discern how they themselves should behave. When these people lose all
But relatively speaking, it gives them a lot of freedom. It is a practice for them to exercise their autonomy and enjoy their freedom. It was indeed a cultural shock for me to experience college life. To be specific, I realize that the help and pre-placed
In the culture shock video, a brief introduction is given explaining various historic times and ceremonies practiced in towns. Later on, Clements, one of the re-known authors is discussed. His brief life script is narrated in the video, showing the history in the world of the writing industry. The narration also reflects on slavery.
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