The author examines the problem of hospital-acquired infections which are now popularly called as nosocomial infections are most often caused by organisms resistant to antimicrobial agents. The frequency of its occurrence has become a source of concern to most clinicians and epidemiologists all over the world…
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Then there is the danger that the ignorant man may easily underdose himself and by exposing his microbes to non‐lethal quantities of the drug make them resistant. Here is a hypothetical illustration. Mr. X. has a sore throat. He buys some penicillin and gives himself, not enough to kill the streptococci but enough to educate them to resist penicillin. He then infects his wife. Mrs. X gets pneumonia and is treated with penicillin. As the streptococci are now resistant to penicillin the treatment fails. Mrs. X dies. Who is primarily responsible for Mrs. X’s death?” (Fleming, p88). It is not only the irrational use of the drugs that cause antibiotic resistance but there are reports of the naturally occurring resistance. According to an experiment conducted by Joshua and Esther Lederberg in 1952, penicillin-resistant strains of bacteria developed much more before the start of penicillin in medicinal practices. Joshua Lederberg and his student Zinder also demonstrated the pre-existence of Streptomycin resistance strains (Nelson, p 294).
The major antibiotic-resistant pathogen associated with nosocomial infection is Staphylococcus aureus. It was one of the earlier organisms to develop penicillin resistance. Methicilin was then used against the resistant strains but in the year 1961MRSA (Methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was detected in Britain. It was reported that there was an increase in the number of fatal cases of sepsis from 4% in 1991 to 37% in 1999 in the UK due to MRSA. By the 1980s MRSA had spread and become quite common in US hospitals and along with resistance to Methicillin. There was a steady increase in oxacillin (Methycillin) resistant S. aureus in U.S. hospitals in the year 1997 which increased to 26.2%. ( Pfaller et al,p1886). Most of these Staphylococcus aureus also showed resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin.
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The author states that diseases which can not often be treated by the antibiotics include but are not limited to gonorrhea, pneumonia, wound infections, septicemia, and tuberculosis. This can partly be attributed to the fact that microbes and bacteria which spread the infections are quite flexible.
This is followed by review of literature and then a conclusion. Thesis statement How can health professionals prevent antibiotic-resistant infection? Introduction Antibiotic resistance may be defined as a type of drug resistance in which the organism survives exposure to the antibiotic that is administered targeting it.
This gives rise to antibiotic resistance over time and the patients are at risk of developing resistant infections in future. These can cause serious illness or even death in the most resistant cases (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013). Antibiotic resistance is a growing pandemic which has resulted in serious infections and death due to resistance bacteria.
In modern time the extensive use of antibiotics in treatment of bacterial infections has led to some organisms developing resistance to some antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance can be defined as a form of drug resistance in which the targeted microorganisms can resist exposure to the same drug (Hawkey, 3) Spontaneous genetic mutation in bacteria may confer resistance to microbial drug.
The mode of action of antibiotics on microorganism are:- inhibition of cell wall synthesis, damage to the cytoplasm membrane, inhibition of nucleic acid and protein synthesis, inhibition of specific of enzyme systems. (Michael J Pelczar, 5th edition, page 515)
isoning depends on the presence of huge amount of bacteria in spoiled food whereas usual intestinal infection could be spread also through drinking water, dirty hands or table dishes.
Actually infection can be disseminated if three conditions are available: source of infection
They found that antibiotics allow to neutralize or kill bacteria but 'learn' how to resist this impact. One important aspect of a scientific theory about a phenomenon is that it seeks to unravel and present in a clear way that phenomenon's causal properties and relations.
m WHO annual reports (more so for 2014) on worldwide supervision of ABR discloses that resistance of antibiotics is no longer a future prediction; its right here with us. In 2012 for instance, there were around 450,000 fresh cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB).Extensively
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