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Provide a discussion of the pathophysiology (ie. signs & symptoms of infection and differential diagnosis where this is appropriate) and epidemiology (ie. define the links in the chain of infection and how and where they can be broken + what is - Essay Example

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In spite of concentrated efforts by government and NGOs, malaria is the most fatal parasitic disease today. Malaria infections manifest in humans…
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Provide a discussion of the pathophysiology (ie. signs & symptoms of infection and differential diagnosis where this is appropriate) and epidemiology (ie. define the links in the chain of infection and how and where they can be broken + what is
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Extract of sample "Provide a discussion of the pathophysiology (ie. signs & symptoms of infection and differential diagnosis where this is appropriate) and epidemiology (ie. define the links in the chain of infection and how and where they can be broken + what is"

Download file to see previous pages Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus are first and foremost the main parasites responsible for transmitting the majority of human being malaria (Gutierrez 2000).
All types of malaria manifest through common symptoms like fever, though some patients progress to severe malaria often caused by the P. falciparum species. It takes 24-72 hours after infection for the infecting parasites to schizogonise, depending on species. Newly developed merozoites are released through the lysis of infected erythrocytes together with other waste substances like, red cell membrane products, hemozoin pigment and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) (Gutierrez 2000).
These toxins released into the blood, lymphotoxin, as well as superoxide and nitric oxide (NO). The end part of GPI has been implicated as a key parasite toxin by several experts. The various cytokines released in response to malaria parasites and red cell membrane products released after lysis are largely responsible for the systemic form of malaria such as head pain, fever , unsettled stomach and vomiting, diarrhea, weariness, painful joints and muscles, thrombocytopenia, immunosuppressant,.(Palmer and Reeder 2001).
The plasmodial DNA is also highly proinflammatory and can induce cytokinemia and fever. Plasmodial DNA presented by hemozoin, produced during schizogony, interacts intracellularly with the Toll-like receptor-9, which leads to the discharge of proinflammatory cytokines that bring on COX-2-upregulating prostaglandins leading to the initiation of other uncomfortable body feeling like fever (Palmer and Reeder 2001).
The infectivity of red cells by malaria parasites, P. falciparum, brings about progressive together with mechanical alteration of the red cells that can deteriorate over time into life-threatening complications of malaria (Choffnes and Relman). While P. falciparum has been overwhelmingly ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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