Four - Essay Example

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The MMR vaccine is recommended for individuals who are immunocompetent, and can mount up an immune response, as it contains measles, mumps and rubella. The advantage of this vaccine is that it gives immunity to all the three viral diseases. This is suitable for the international…
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Preferential Groups for the Individual Types of Measles Vaccine MMR Vaccine Healthcare workers 2) International travelers 3) in post-secondary education facilities
4) Individuals who have recently been exposed to an outbreak
5) Military recruits
Single live vaccine
1) Infants above the age of 12 months
2) Recommended for all immunocompetent individuals
Killed Measles vaccine
This vaccine contains the killed virus, and thus no risk of viral pathogenicity.
1) Immunocompromised individuals
2) Individuals suffering from hematological disorders (Leukemia)
Individuals who should not be immunized
As a general rule, every person should be immunized as is necessary and applicable. Some individuals cannot be immunized due to physical or physiological conditions.
1) Pregnant ladies.
2) Individuals with Neomycin allergy
3) Individuals with allergy to egg proteins
4) Children below age of 12 months
5) Individuals born before 1970
6) Cancer patients
MMR vaccine
The MMR vaccine is recommended for individuals who are immunocompetent, and can mount up an immune response, as it contains measles, mumps and rubella. The advantage of this vaccine is that it gives immunity to all the three viral diseases. This is suitable for the international travelers who visit areas where the disease is still a risk factor. For students in university, it is also suitable due to the fact that there is a large intermingling of students form far and wide, and thus risk of communicability. Furthermore, the MMR vaccine is also considered relatively cheap for a trio, ranging from 52-60USD per dose. It is thus affordable for the majority, leaving a small percentage that is normally catered for by government or NGO healthcare facilities.
The risk factors involved in the vaccination are generally similar in all other vaccination scenarios. These include adverse anaphylactic reactions (although extremely rare) (Carapetis & Curtis, 2001), neomycin reaction, egg protein sensitivity reaction (Aickin R, 1994), and a generalized reaction to the MMR antigen component.
Single live vaccine
It is recommended as well for healthy immunocompetent individuals. This is due to their ability to mount a proper and functional immune response. It is recommended for children above 12 months because their mothers’ antibodies may interfere with the immunological response of the infant. This is due to the fact they may end up binding the antigen, and having no substrate for the infant antibodies to recognize and bind (Wilkins J, 1978)
Killed Measles vaccine
It is recommended for immunocompromised individuals, patients who are on corticosteroid treatment and those who are unable to mount a strong immunological response to a live vaccine. An example is patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes, or in cases of cancer (Anon., 1993). The advantage of this type of vaccine is that it does not bear a risk of pathogenicity on immunosuppressed patients. Furthermore, it does not place undue pressure on the immune reconstitution mechanisms of the patient.
Individuals who should not be immunized
Some individuals may not be suitable candidates for immunization, and thus may have to forfeit or postpone the procedure. The factors that affect the grouping are mainly physiological. They include pregnant women, adults born before 1970, children below 12 months, individuals with prior severe reaction to the vaccine. The individuals born before 1970 are generally considered immune due to the fact they may have been exposed to measles before the vaccine was first manufactured. Pregnant women are not vaccinated to avoid the infection of the fetus by the viral components of the vaccine. An example is placental crossing to form congenital Rubella (Barry R. Bloom, 2002)
Carapetis JR---Curtis N--- Royle J (2001). “MMR immunization; True anaphylaxis to MMR is very rare”. BMJ 323 (7317): 869. 
Aickin R---Hill D--- Kemp A. Measles immunization in children with allergy to egg. BMJ.1994, 309, 223–225
Wilkins J---Wehrle PF. Evidence for reinstatement of infants 12 to 14 months of age into routine measles immunization programs. 1978, page 132,164
“Recommendations of the Advisory on Immunization Practices (ACIP): Use of Vaccines and Immune Globulins in Persons with Altered Immuno-competence”. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, Epidemiology Program Office (CDC), Web
Barry R. Bloom---Paul-Henri Lambert. The Vaccine Book. Academic Press, 2002. Print
Public Information Leaflet
Measles is a highly contagious, serious disease caused by a virus. In 1980, measles caused an estimated 2.6 million deaths each year. It is spread by coming into contact with infected fluid from a person’s nose or mouth…
This may include droplets from a sneeze or cough.
Who is at risk? Unvaccinated young children are at highest risk of measles and its complications. This includes death. Any person who has not been vaccinated or was vaccinated but did not develop immunity can become infected.
Measles is still common in many developing countries- particularly in parts of Africa and Asia.
Warning signs; it takes nine days for the symptoms to be evident.
They include; Fever, Cough, Red eyes, Runny nose, generalized rash …
Furthermore, Measles may present many more complications. These include pneumonia, bronchitis, ear infections, pregnancy problems and brain disease known as encephalitis (fever, headache, confusion, and sometimes seizures)…
But, all is not lost…
Vaccines against measles are always readily available at the health center nearest you.
The vaccines are available for all ages starting from one year. All it takes is a small prick that will protect you and your family from measles, mumps and rubella. This is essential if you are planning to go on vacation any time soon. The entire regime involves two visits to your doctor separated by a one month period. The vaccine acts by helping your body build immunity to the measles. This happens by introducing a weakened or dead form of the virus and letting your body recognize and fight it. Once it does this, it achieves permanent recognition of the virus, and is thus equipped to fight it in the future.
Note it is important to always consult your personal physician before embarking on the vaccination regime. This is so as to ascertain whether you had prior vaccinations, or if you might suffer any allergies to the vaccine. Have a happy vacation… Read More
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