Free

Summarising - Assignment Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Researchers used two versions of genetically engineered virus of Adeno-Associated Virus. One that carried enzymes that cut DNA in an exact spot within living mice’s…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.6% of users find it useful
Summarising
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Summarising"

Genome Scientists have achieved clinically meaningful results by treating hemophilia in mice using genome editing. Researchers used two versions of genetically engineered virus of Adeno-Associated Virus. One that carried enzymes that cut DNA in an exact spot within living mice’s liver cells and another that carried a replacement gene to the exact cut spot within the DNA sequence. According to hematologist Katherine High, M.D at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, the research established that genome editing could correct a genetic defect in vivo delivery of zinc finger nucleases (Li).
High and Sangamo BioSciences, Inc., scientists used Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs) genetically engineered enzymes that act as molecular word processors to edit mutated sequences of DNA. Since scientists have learnt how to design custom-matched ZFNs to a specific gene location, they designed ZFNs specifically for factor nine genes (F9) and used it in conjunction with a DNA sequence to restore the normal gene function lost in hemophilia. ZFNs are more advantageous compared to conventional genes since they target a precise place in a sequence of chromosomes (High). Conventional genes may deliver a replacement gene to an unwanted location resulting to bypassing of normal biological regulatory components controlling the gene hence cause risk of “insertion mutagenesis”.
An inherited single-gene mutation in hemophilia impairs a patient’s ability to produce blood-clotting proteins. This results to spontaneous life-threatening bleeding episodes. Hemophilia has two major forms, A and B, which occurs solely in males. They result from lack of clotting factors VIII and IX respectively. In a recent study, researchers used genetic engineering to produce a hemophilia B mouse. Prior treatment, the mouse depicted no levels of clotting factor IX since previous studies by different researchers shown that ZFNs could accomplish genome editing if injected into mice for sickle cell disease treatment. However, the ex living animal approach was not feasible for many human genetic diseases affecting whole organ system (Shangzhen). Therefore, the current study was testing genome-editing effectiveness when performed in a vivo.
The researchers designed two vector versions using Adeno-associated virus. One vector ferried ZFNs for editing while the other delivered a correctly functioning version of the F9 gene. Since different mutations in the same gene may cause hemophilia, the process replaced seven different coding sequences, covering 95% of the disease-carrying mutations in hemophilia B. Researchers administered gene therapy vector into a mouse liver whereby, the liver that received ZFNs/gene combination produced enough clotting factor that reduced blood-clotting times to nearly normal level (Philip). However, the liver that received vectors lacking ZFNs or F9 mini-genes had no significant improvements in blood-clotting times.
In conclusion, results showed no toxic effects on growth or liver functioning depicting that genome editing is possible in vivo. High proposed further studies in order to translate these findings into safe, effective treatments for hemophilia and other single-gene diseases in human. Clinical translation of genetic therapies from mouse models to humans was a lengthy process, but achieving positive results made it worth. For greater genome editing results, therapeutic procedure needs to mature (High).
Work Cited
Hojun Li, Virginia Haurigot, Yannick Doyon, Tianjian Li, Sunnie Y. Wong, Anand S. Bhagwat, Nirav Malani, Xavier M. Anguela, Rajiv Sharma, Lacramiora Ivanciu, Samuel L. Murphy, Jonathan D. Finn, Fayaz R. Khazi, Shangzhen Zhou, David E. Paschon, Edward J. Rebar, Frederic D. Bushman, Philip D. Gregory, Michael C. Holmes, Katherine A. High. In vivo genome editing restores haemostasis in a mouse model of haemophilia. Nature, 2011; DOI: 10.1038/nature10177. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Summarising Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Summarising Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1591718-summarising
(Summarising Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Summarising Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words. https://studentshare.org/biology/1591718-summarising.
“Summarising Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1591718-summarising.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Summarising

Summarising a Scientific Journal

...?Summary: The conduct of the research was greatly inspired by the need to have a higher sensitivity in the mechanical characterisation of macroscopicmixers to bring about an eventual improvement in terms of mixing quality. There was an integrated method in conducting the research in that the researchers used two major methods. Firstly, there was the use of continuous stirring batch reactors developed by Villermaux (1991). Then there were the static micro-mixers whereby no stirring was done. The results did not produce and static results as there were complexity and variation depending on the variable in place. Theoretically, this complexity and variability in conclusions implies that parameters used in achieving mixing quality... The conduct...
3 Pages(750 words)Literature review

Characteristics of A Well Rounded Person

...should easily comprehend the changes happening around them. They should be knowledgeable. They should have the basic education to allow them to foster happiness and peace. Well rounded individuals should also be in a position to take and give back to the economy. This means that well rounded persons should indulge in economic activities within their locale. Lastly, they should strive to excel in all sectors of life and adapt to being dynamic in nature. The dynamic nature makes available an opportunity into other segments in case of changes (Mcvlntosh & Munoz, 2009, p.69). A survey can be described to be a technique that individuals use in gathering in sequence. Polls are just methods that individuals use in summarising...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Produce an individual 1600 word report summarising the key issues raised in the article. The summary should include references f

...?Fast food literary took over the food industry by storm, from its humble inception in the 1940s, fast food joints can now be found almost anywhere one cares to look, and this success has had its fair share of controversy. This is because it has been accused of being the primary contributor to increased cases of obesity therefore leading to a number of lifestyle diseases such as high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes and so any more. Despite the health warnings that come with eating such kind of food, the world seems to be obsessed with fast food. The franchises associated with fast foods are increasing in number with a good example being the McDonalds, which serves more than 46 million customers daily due to the fact... food literary...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Summarising and Paraphrasing

...?SUMMARIZING AND PARAPHRASING Essay The reading The reading “The United Arab Emirates: The Twenty-First Century Beckons” by Jim Grant, Fatema Shabbir Golawala, and Donelda S. McKechnie focuses on the current position and increased influence of the United Arab Emirates in the global platform. The research notes that the United Arab Emirates is now concentrating on tourism, building and construction, sports, and real estate after shifting its reliance from the oil industry (Grant, Golawala, & McKechnie 2007 p. 507). As such, this research addresses the research question, which seeks to establish the factors, which promote business in UAE in the twenty-first century in (Grant, Golawala, & McKechnie 2007 p. 507). The research... AND PARAPHRASING...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

SUMMARISING DATA.UNDERTAKING STATISTICAL TESTS. APPLIED MEDICAL STATISTICS

...?SUMMARISING DATA.UNDERTAKING STATISTICAL TESTS. APPLIED MEDICAL STATISTICS TASK A: DATA SUMMARY Statistics Weight1 Weight2 babyweight Weightgain         Mean 59.03118 70.00118 3.274412 10.97 Median 58.2 69.75 3.255 10.95 Mode 60.5 82.7 3.64 12.7 Standard Deviation 9.761816 10.84406 0.621206 4.705402 Kurtosis -0.04144 -0.54081 4.757353 -0.07777 Skewness 0.414652 0.01683 1.345788 0.33703 Confidence Level(95.0%) 1.478003 1.641862 0.094055 0.712429 The above table explains the descriptive statistics for all the given variables that were picked out to examine the sample of 170 pregnant ladies. Utilising all the observation, the statistics were calculated therefore no observation is missing. The variables provided include...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Business Principles

...In a business venture, its mission/vision ment and value ment serves as its overall guide and pathway wherein the all its activities and decisions should be based. It gives us a glimpse of the business' path and "heart" for its direction and possibility of success. Browsing on overall strategic purpose and position of O2 mobile phones by summarising its mission, vision and value statements. O2's mission statement clearly shows its focus on creating "an inseparable relationship with" their customer "by understanding their needs and delivering wireless solutions that they [the customers] truly value." Its vision of being "a mobile brand by enriching people's lives, whatever they're doing, wherever they are" fittingly...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Certificate in Education

...at random to answer them. Even the weaker students seemed to have grasped everything from mm lesson. The students would also continue asking me question regarding the application of depreciation in business world. Indeed learning took place because toward the end of the lesson, the students could answer me most of the question from depreciation concept. At the end of the lesson, I summarised the lesson by discussing the main points and ensure the students study more on depreciation; I gave them a handout to all students to read during their free time. I was really impressed as a teacher since I had achieved my goals of transferring knowledge to students. If repeating the same exercise, I would ensure I first know what...
4 Pages(1000 words)Personal Statement

PSYCHOLOGY SET UP A STUDY

...in summarising research on the topic claims that ‘Children and adolescents whose parents are authoritative rate themselves and are rated by objective measures as more socially and instrumentally competent … ’and those whose parents are ‘uninvolved perform poorly in all domains.’ The description of ‘authoritative’ parental style borders on the ideal. These parents do not demand unquestioning obedience. They set standards for children’s conduct by negotiation and reference to shared and valued goals. They are assertive but do not punish breaches of discipline in an arbitrary manner by restrictions or by intruding on the child. They require and receive cooperation from their children. The ‘uninvolved’ parents may be...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Summarising and evaluating the contributions made to the Semantic Web research area and Challenges of the semantic web

...Semantic Web Challenges One of the pressing technological areas of inquiry in the current innovative environment is exploration into the means of dealing with the profound influx of information. While the World Wide Web has made tremendous strides in terms of information gathering and dissemination it’s clear that there exists considerable room for advancements in ‘big data’. The Semantic Web has emerged as a means of streamlining web data through the encouragement of web pages with semantic content. Led by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), web pages structured in this way would aid in a streamlined framework allowing data to be shared and implemented in a multi-dimensional format. While the progressive implications... Web Challenges One...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Legal and Ethical Aspects of Medication Administration Case Study

2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Assignment on topic Summarising for FREE!

Contact Us