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Annotated Bibliography on Coral Bleeching - Research Paper Example

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D., Fine, M. M., Roff, G. G., & Hoegh-Guldberg, O. O. (2008). Bacteria are not the primary cause of bleaching in the Mediterranean coral Oculina patagonica. ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal Of Microbial Ecology, 2(1), 67-73.
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Annotated Bibliography on Coral Bleaching Annotated Bibliography on Coral Bleaching Ainsworth, T. D., Fine, M.M., Roff, G. G., & Hoegh-Guldberg, O. O. (2008). Bacteria are not the primary cause of bleaching in the Mediterranean coral Oculina patagonica. ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal Of Microbial Ecology, 2(1), 67-73.
After conducting a laboratory experiment, authors concluded that bacteria are not the main cause that leads to bleaching of corals. The experiment indicated that bleaching occurs even with the absence of bacteria. The article illustrates that even though bacteria plays a significant role in the coral stasis and health, they are not the primary cause of bleaching. Authors concluded that environmental stressors tend to be the primary triggers leading to bleaching. They also suggested that the role that bacteria play in relation to bleaching tends to be that of opportunistic colonization. Therefore, bacteria are not the primary cause of coral bleaching.
Anthony, K. N., Hoogenboom, M. O., Maynard, J. A., Grottoli, A. G., & Middlebrook, R. (2009). Energetics Approach to Predicting Mortality Risk from Environmental Stress: A Case Study of Coral Bleaching. Functional Ecology, 23(3), 539-550.
There is a high probability of an increase in frequency and severity of coral bleaching events because of climatic changes. According to the article, this is a significant threat to most of the corals ecosystem in various parts of the world. The authors demonstrate a survey they conducted on two Indo-pacific coral species in order to show the coral mortality risks and recovery when bleaching events occurs. Moreover, the authors demonstrate the possibility of curbing coral bleaching through establishing the bleaching rate and duration. Authors conclude that predicting coral mortality rate is a significant achievement to the allocation and management of resources when trying to increase recovery time during bleaching events.
Bourne, D., Iida, Y., Uthicke, S., & Smith-Keune, C. (2008). Changes in coral-associated microbial communities during a bleaching event. ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal Of Microbial Ecology, 2(4), 350-363.
The article mainly focuses on authors’ study that demonstrates various changes that occur in coral-associated bacteria environments. The article demonstrates that even though increase in sea temperature poses as the main cause of coral bleaching, understanding of various coral-associated communities may help in reducing severe bleaching events. The article also demonstrates a research conducted by the authors that indicates microbial associations plays a key role in maintaining coral health. This helps to keep corals alive in the event of bleaching by protecting them from invasion of potential pathogenic microbes. The study on this article relates to bleaching events on a natural reef system.
Brandt, M. E., & McManus, J. W. (2009). Disease incidence is related to bleaching extent in reef-building corals. Ecology, 90(10), 2859-2867.
Brandt and McManus indicate that a disease incidence have been associated with an increase in bleaching of corals. Authors of the article indicates that significance consideration have been employed to determine the effect of the disease on corals. The article illustrates that a study conducted on the Caribbean indicated that bleaching extent was contributed to the occurrence of the disease on corals. The authors also indicates that bleaching extent differed in the combination of varies diseases on the corals. Authors of the article illustrates that in order to develop a cure for the possible diseases that may affect corals in future, there is a need to understand mortality patterns.
Carilli, J. E., Norris, R. D., Black, B. A., Walsh, S. M., & McField, M. (2009). Local Stressors Reduce Coral Resilience to Bleaching. Plos ONE, 4(7), 1-5.
Authors of the article managed to figure out that there is a high probability local stressors play a key role in reducing the ability of corals to resist bleaching. Authors also indicate that local stressors do not promote acclimatization therefore increasing failure in corals to resist warm climates resulting to bleaching. The article presents a research conducted by the authors showing background stress reduces the ability of corals to resist global climate change. The article indicates that coral growth at various sites that are accompanied by anthropogenic stressors tend to remain suppressed compared to areas with less stressors on many areas worldwide.
Danovaro, R., Bongiorni, L., Corinaldesi, C., Giovannelli, D., Damiani, E., Astolfi, P., & ... Pusceddu, A. (2008). Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(4), 441-447.
The article illustrates that the increase on coral bleaching has a significant negative impact on biodiversity. Coral bleaching also affects functioning of coral ecosystem. These contribute to a reduction in production of various goods and services related to corals. According to the article, the increase in large extent of coral bleaching is associated with rise in temperature, pollution and various bacterial diseases. In addition to the above issues that cause coral bleaching, personal care products also have an impact on aquatic organisms. After conducting a research, the authors managed to establish that sunscreens promote viral infection. This leads to coral bleaching in areas where there recreational use of the product by human is high.
Eakin, C., Morgan, J. A., Heron, S. F., Smith, T. B., Gang, L., Alvarez-Filip, L., & ... de la Guardia, E. (2010). Caribbean Corals in Crisis: Record Thermal Stress, Bleaching, and Mortality in 2005. Plos ONE, 5(11), 1-9.
According to the article, rise in temperatures is the main cause of coral bleaching. This is a major threat to corals because there have been a significant evident of an increase in their mortality events because of the rising temperatures. The article demonstrates various research experiments that indicate rise in temperatures as the main cause of coral bleaching. Authors indicate that something ought to be done in order to prevent large-scale bleaching. This will help to ease the long-term consequences that troubles corals ecosystem. Authors also indicate that by assessing all the collected information through various experiments, researchers will be able to come up with effective measures that will assist in preventing coral bleaching.
Heron, S. F., Jury, M. R., Spillman, C. M. & Anthony, K. N. (2011). Climate Change and Carbon Threats to Coral Reefs: National Meteorological and Ocean Services as Sentinels. Bulletin Of The American Meteorological Society, 92(12), 1581-1586.
The article focuses mainly on the threats that coral reefs experience because of climatic changes and carbon emissions. Authors illustrate that ocean warming poses as one of the main causes of coral bleaching. Moreover, ocean warming is a significance cause of coral death. According to the article, an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide may cause acidification in the ocean. This leads to weakening growth of corals, which later causes their death. Moreover, authors explain various obligations of meteorological department to enhance proper coral management. According to the article most of this obligations relates to effective forecasting on ocean weather Worldwide.
Jennings, S., Nicholas A. J., G., Shaun K., W., Nicholas V. C., P., Jan, R., Jude P., B., & Tim M., D. (2007). Lag Effects in the Impacts of Mass Coral Bleaching on Coral Reef Fish, Fisheries, and Ecosystems. Conservation Biology, 21(5), 1291-1300.
Recent research relating to various episodes of coral bleaching indicates there has been an enormous loss of corals in many oceans. This has contributed to a reduction in the number of fishes in some areas as demonstrated on the article. The reason is there are a number of fish species that mainly specialize on live coral as their source of food and shelter. These particular species also depend on coral reefs for recruitment habitat. Authors suggest that coral bleaching, as one of the climate-mediated disturbances ought to be reflected in a positive manner in order to protect the loss of corals.
Jones, R. J. (2008). Coral bleaching, bleaching-induced mortality, and the adaptive significance of the bleaching response. Marine Biology, 154(1), 65-80.
Most of the coral bleaching events are often associated with high level of coral mortality. The author indicates that poorly documentation of bleaching is one of the main factors that affects carrying of effective measures that would help to prevent losing many corals. According to the article, knowing when mortality occurs would be easier for ocean management to employ effective response measures. After the author conducting a research on coral mortality, he managed to figure out various ways that can be employed as adaptive measures in case of bleaching in order to prevent enormous coral loss in all oceans Worldwide.
Mao-Jones, J., Ritchie, K. B., Jones, L. E., & Ellner, S. P. (2010). How Microbial Community Composition Regulates Coral Disease Development. Plos Biology, 8(3), 1-16.
According to the article, corals are in a rapid decline worldwide. One of the causes that may lead to a decline of corals is bleaching. Another identified factor according to the article is outbreaks of infectious diseases. The article illustrates that one of the factors associated with an increase in extensive bleaching is a shift of the microbial community. Especially in the mucus layer, that surrounds corals. After conducting a research, the authors managed to find out that loss of antibiotic activities is one of the main causes that eliminate components, which assist corals in fighting diseases. Less antibiotic activities gives a room for pathogens and infectious diseases to the corals elevating the risk of bleaching.
Maynard, J. A., Anthony, K. N., Marshall, P. A., & Masiri, I. I. (2008). Major bleaching events can lead to increased thermal tolerance in corals. Marine Biology, 155(2), 173-182
According to the article, climatic changes pose as the major threat to coral ecosystem. Authors illustrate that warm climate leads to an increase in thermal stress causing bleaching of corals. After conducting a research, authors concluded that vulnerability of coral reefs mainly depend on climatic patters. However, they established that increase in thermal tolerance also causes bleaching. The authors also indicate that a key component to coral resilience is their capacity and ability to adapt with climatic changes. However, the authors indicate that adaptation of corals requires selective mortality. They also indicate that adaptation of corals require less thermally tolerant individuals.
McClanahan, T. R., Weil, E. E., & Maina, J. J. (2009). Strong relationship between coral bleaching and growth anomalies in massive Porites. Global Change Biology, 15(7), 1804-1816.
The article indicates an increase in the number of diseases that affect corals. The cause of these diseases tends to be human land use and climatic changes. According to the article, climatic changes that include increase in water temperatures and coral bleaching tends to be the main factors that cause coral related diseases. Authors indicates that after scanning electron micrographs of affected corals they managed to find that high abundance of various diseases tend to cause more bleaching effects on corals. After conducting a research, authors arrived to a conclusion that frequency of skeletal growth anomalies tends to increase in the near future because of increase with frequency of coral bleaching.
McWilliams, J. P., Côté, I. M., Gill, J. A., Sutherland, W. J., & Watkinson, A. R. (2005). Accelerating Impacts of Temperature-Induced Coral Bleaching in the Caribbean. Ecology, 86(8), 2055-2060.
According to the article, there is a possibility of curbing coral bleaching through elevated sea surface temperatures (SST). Authors indicate that an increase in marine temperature can threat the existence of coral reef regions. After conducting a research on the Caribbean Sea, authors illustrate that an increase in the geographical extent on coral bleaching is contributed by an increase in SST anomalies. The article indicates that an increase in the regional SST of 0.1o C contributes to an increase in geographical extent of coral bleaching to a level of 35% and 42%. Authors of the article illustrate that if an effective response fails to be employed, there is a high probability of coral bleaching becoming a chronic problem on Caribbean reefs.
Rosenberg, E., Kushmaro, A., Kramarsky-Winter, E., Banin, E., & Yossi, L. (2009). The role of microorganisms in coral bleaching. ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal Of Microbial Ecology, 3(2), 139-146.
The article illustrates various roles that microorganisms play in enhancing coral bleaching. Authors of the article illustrate that high temperature on sea waters result to irreversible damage to the symbiotic algae. This leads to loss of pigment on the affected algae present on the coral reefs resulting to bleaching. The article mainly focuses on the microbial hypothesis of coral bleaching. Moreover, the article illustrates that coral bleaching is a disease. Authors of this article support this fact by indicating that coral bleaching is a disease usually affected by various biotic factors. Authors also illustrate that high temperatures affect algae leading to inhibit photosynthesis. This leads to the algae in producing reactive oxygen species causing bleaching on the corals.
Santavy, D. L., Mueller, E. M., MacLaughlin, L., Peters, E. C., Quarles, R. L., & Barron, M. G. (2011). Resilience of Florida Keys Coral Communities Following Large-Scale Disturbances. Diversity (14242818), 3(4), 628-640.
According to the article, multiple chronic stressors play a key role in the decline of corals. The research that the authors carried on Florida Keys reef system indicated that episodic large-scale disturbances also have caused the decline of corals for a period of over last 40 years. Authors conducted various assessments in order to determine the cause of coral bleaching. Factors that influenced the assessment include changes in coral abundance, disease and bleaching prevalence related to corals. The article illustrates that after the research, authors arrived in to a conclusion that coral bleaching occurs in large scale on areas away from anthropogenic influences.
Seneca, F., Forêt, S., Ball, E., Smith-Keune, C., Miller, D., & van Oppen, M. (2010). Patterns of gene expression in a scleractinian coral undergoing natural bleaching. Marine Biotechnology (New York, N.Y.), 12(5), 594-604.
The article demonstrates a research conducted by the authors showing gene expressions on natural coral populations. The aim of the research conducted by the authors as illustrated on the article was to determine and evaluate corals internal control genes. Then the authors were to investigate various changes in the selected genes. After identifying the genes, the authors tried to figure out whether there was a capability of corals to adapt warm climate as a means of preventing enormous bleaching. According to the article, the study conducted by the authors represented a significant step in the application of technology that ought to help in monitoring bleaching response on widespread coral reefs.
Spillman, C. M. (2011). Advances in Forecasting Coral Bleaching Conditions for Reef Management. Bulletin Of The American Meteorological Society, 92(12), 1586-1591.
According to the article, there is a need for forecasting of seasonal oceans charges in order to prevent circumstances of coral bleaching. The author indicates that bleaching increases due to global warming and there is a need of employing coral reef management. Bleaching of corals occur because of warm ocean temperatures hence a need for reliable forecasting of ocean weather. The importance of forecasts on a seasonal time according to the author is that it provides ocean managers to have considerable time of noticing any potential bleaching conditions. This allows the management to respond to the bleaching events within the right time. The author indicates that it is possible to limit coral damage on mass bleaching events but with the help of effective policies.
SUGGETT, D. J., & SMITH, D. J. (2011). Interpreting the sign of coral bleaching as friend vs. foe. Global Change Biology, 17(1), 45-55.
Coral bleaching has becoming a major concern worldwide drawing attention to researchers and conservationists. The article demonstrates on how researchers have strived to understand the fundamental mechanisms associated with coral bleaching. Authors focus mainly on coral mortality as the chief cause of bleaching where they give various advantages and disadvantages of occurrence of the bleaching event. Moreover, authors illustrate various ways of how to interpret signs of coral bleaching. Authors also indicate that by understanding this particular signs, false-positive reports related to coral bleaching will reduce. This will also help researchers and the public to communicate the nature of bleaching.
Vivekanandan, E. E., Ali, M., Jasper, B. B., & Rajagopalan, M. M. (2009). Vulnerability of corals to warming of the Indian seas: a projection for the 21st century. Current Science (00113891), 97(11), 1654-1658.
The article illustrates a research done on Indian seas that indicated an increase in sea temperatures might lead to severe bleaching on corals. Authors indicate that after conducting a research they managed to find out that due to lack of an increase in thermal tolerance capacity, there is a high probability that bleaching of corals will become an annual event. Authors also managed to find out that there is a probability of reef building corals to lose dominance by the year 2030. However, the authors illustrate that if Indian Ocean management takes prior measures to curb bleaching, they will be able to save corals in the future.
Bibliography
Ainsworth, T. D., Fine, M. M., Roff, G. G., & Hoegh-Guldberg, O. O. (2008). Bacteria are not the primary cause of bleaching in the Mediterranean coral Oculina patagonica. ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal Of Microbial Ecology, 2(1), 67-73.
Anthony, K. N., Hoogenboom, M. O., Maynard, J. A., Grottoli, A. G., & Middlebrook, R. (2009). Energetics Approach to Predicting Mortality Risk from Environmental Stress: A Case Study of Coral Bleaching. Functional Ecology, 23(3), 539-550.
Bourne, D., Iida, Y., Uthicke, S., & Smith-Keune, C. (2008). Changes in coral-associated microbial communities during a bleaching event. ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal Of Microbial Ecology, 2(4), 350-363.
Brandt, M. E., & McManus, J. W. (2009). Disease incidence is related to bleaching extent in reef-building corals. Ecology, 90(10), 2859-2867.
Carilli, J. E., Norris, R. D., Black, B. A., Walsh, S. M., & McField, M. (2009). Local Stressors Reduce Coral Resilience to Bleaching. Plos ONE, 4(7), 1-5.
Danovaro, R., Bongiorni, L., Corinaldesi, C., Giovannelli, D., Damiani, E., Astolfi, P., & ... Pusceddu, A. (2008). Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(4), 441-447.
Eakin, C., Morgan, J. A., Heron, S. F., Smith, T. B., Gang, L., Alvarez-Filip, L., & ... de la Guardia, E. (2010). Caribbean Corals in Crisis: Record Thermal Stress, Bleaching, and Mortality in 2005. Plos ONE, 5(11), 1-9.
Heron, S. F., Jury, M. R., Spillman, C. M. & Anthony, K. N. (2011). Climate Change and Carbon Threats to Coral Reefs: National Meteorological and Ocean Services as Sentinels. Bulletin Of The American Meteorological Society, 92(12), 1581-1586.
Jennings, S., Nicholas A. J., G., Shaun K., W., Nicholas V. C., P., Jan, R., Jude P., B., & Tim M., D. (2007). Lag Effects in the Impacts of Mass Coral Bleaching on Coral Reef Fish, Fisheries, and Ecosystems. Conservation Biology, 21(5), 1291-1300.
Jones, R. J. (2008). Coral bleaching, bleaching-induced mortality, and the adaptive significance of the bleaching response. Marine Biology, 154(1), 65-80.
Mao-Jones, J., Ritchie, K. B., Jones, L. E., & Ellner, S. P. (2010). How Microbial Community Composition Regulates Coral Disease Development. Plos Biology, 8(3), 1-16.
Maynard, J. A., Anthony, K. N., Marshall, P. A., & Masiri, I. I. (2008). Major bleaching events can lead to increased thermal tolerance in corals. Marine Biology, 155(2), 173-182.
McClanahan, T. R., Weil, E. E., & Maina, J. J. (2009). Strong relationship between coral bleaching and growth anomalies in massive Porites. Global Change Biology, 15(7), 1804- 1816.
McWilliams, J. P., Côté, I. M., Gill, J. A., Sutherland, W. J., & Watkinson, A. R. (2005). Accelerating Impacts of Temperature-Induced Coral Bleaching in the Caribbean. Ecology, 86(8), 2055-2060.
Rosenberg, E., Kushmaro, A., Kramarsky-Winter, E., Banin, E., & Yossi, L. (2009). The role of microorganisms in coral bleaching. ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal Of Microbial Ecology, 3(2), 139-146.
Santavy, D. L., Mueller, E. M., MacLaughlin, L., Peters, E. C., Quarles, R. L., & Barron, M. G. (2011). Resilience of Florida Keys Coral Communities Following Large-Scale Disturbances. Diversity (14242818), 3(4), 628-640.
Seneca, F., Forêt, S., Ball, E., Smith-Keune, C., Miller, D., & van Oppen, M. (2010). Patterns of gene expression in a scleractinian coral undergoing natural bleaching. Marine Biotechnology (New York, N.Y.), 12(5), 594-604.
Spillman, C. M. (2011). Advances in Forecasting Coral Bleaching Conditions for Reef Management. Bulletin Of The American Meteorological Society, 92(12), 1586-1591.
SUGGETT, D. J., & SMITH, D. J. (2011). Interpreting the sign of coral bleaching as friend vs. foe. Global Change Biology, 17(1), 45-55.
Vivekanandan, E. E., Ali, M., Jasper, B. B., & Rajagopalan, M. M. (2009). Vulnerability of corals to warming of the Indian seas: a projection for the 21st century. Current Science (00113891), 97(11), 1654-1658. Read More
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