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Animals thus provides medium for prerequisite test to prove the efficacy of the vaccine in question in human beings. Notwithstanding, the belief has been informed to construe that substitutes of the animals are available for the same (Grayson and Library 145). Initially, animals testing were done without any consideration on the life sanctity of the animals, suffering of the animals either was not considered an issue as the main concern was the study. Fortunately, with the enactment of laws regarding the animals, the animals’ rights have been established to ensure that just like human beings they are protected. The establishment of the laws necessitated research on possible alternatives that were not animals which includes; synthetic skins called corrositex, computer modeling, improved statistical design and the Murine Local Lymph Nodes Assay (LLNA) (Grayson and Library 167). The efforts to avoid the use of actual animals in research is aimed at what is dubbed three Rs; Refinement, Reduction and Replacement (Grayson and Library 172). The sole purpose of involving animals in testing the efficacy of drugs is to reduce the number of drugs that are tested on human beings. Drugs can only be tested on humans after it has passed the animals models, this means that any drug that fails to meet the required standards do not reach the human trials. These standards may be that they do not elicit enough immune response or proved to be poisonous and is notorious of killing living cells. In such a case, the drugs trials will halt at animals testing (Grayson and Library 197).
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An attribute refers to specific values of the variable. For example, the variable gender has two attributes- male and female. The variable agreement may have five attributes- (a) strongly agree, (b) disagree (c) neutral (d) agree and (e) strongly agree (Trochim, 2006).
It cannot be denied that science has attained progress through the use of animal testing. Several life-saving drugs and treatments have been developed through this practice. The European Forum of Good Clinical Practice had organized a
This paper aims at emphasizing on avoidance of animal testing.
Conclusion: Animal testing is not important in medical research as facts can prove it. Government and institutions should come up with measures that aim at
In this milieu, experiments and innovation have become important to ensure effective interventions in healthcare settings. However, similar to every other research or invention project, healthcare experiments also bear a degree of ethical responsibilities, wherein
The author examines clinical animal testing as the most commonly used whereby drugs are administered into the animals, and observation are made. Such testing can include skin test which provides information on the circulation of the responsible white cells in the process of protecting wounds in animals.
The author states that there are strong ethical arguments against animal experimentation. A common example would be an illness given to laboratory mice in order to measure the effectiveness of a new drug. Animal experimentation has showed that it causes pain, suffering and lasting harm to the animals.
Animal testing has contributed immensely in coming up with life-saving cures and treatments. According to California Biomedical Research Association, almost all medical breakthroughs over the past one century used animals (Watson, 2009). Animal testing has also contributed to understanding how to treat malaria, Leukemia, and other major diseases.
According to the paper despite the fact that animals should not be subjected to painful and potentially lethal experiments for the sake helping develop cures and medical procedures that would save human life, their relevance in this aspect cannot be overemphasized. Nevertheless, while life is treated as precious, both for animals and humans, it is evident that none should be denied the right to live a life free of pain and suffering.
The medical practitioners have credited this procedure due its cheapness, human-friendliness and its relative efficiency. However, criticism has emerged to raise concerns of animal cruelty and species extinction, and ineffectiveness of the process in providing a guarantee to human safety.
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