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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Name Institution Tutor Date Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Introduction Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) refers to a condition caused by regurgitation of the gastric acid into the esophagus. The condition is a common presentation in adults recognized by a burning sensation in the chest…
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Download file to see previous pages GERD is a risk factor for Barrett’s esophageal (BE), which also predisposes patients to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Patients diagnosed with GERD require proton pump inhibitors therapy as a mechanism to prevent the occurrence of BE and EAC. This paper is a research of the current studies on GERD and a review of a case study for a child suffering from GERD. Case Study The case study is of an 8 year old boy who experienced headaches and neck pain. The child had started complaining of the pain four years before the mother consulted a chiropractic doctor. The child had developed pain after riding in a “dodge ‘em” car. An emergency stop worsened the pain, which forced the mother to seek medical assistance. The severity of the neck pain had reduced before consultation, but the intensity of headaches had remained constant. Other symptoms included bouts of dizziness and nausea caused by neck rotation, heavy nausea in the morning, and severe neck pain and vomiting after meals. The child also experienced abdominal pain over the stomach, recurring bronchitis and migraine as a result of the family history. The doctor performed a physical examination that showed normal growth and development. Neurological, abdominal, cardiovascular, and respiratory examinations did not exhibit abnormal findings. Restrictions on segmental motion on upper cervical spine and sacral dysfunction were observed after a chiropractic spinal evaluation. The doctor also observed Shimizu reflex on the upper right hand side indicating an upper cervical problem (Jonasson, and Knaap, 2006). Using the above information, the doctor made a diagnosis of cervicogenic headache and abdominal pain. The doctor believed the pain had a somatovisceral origin. The diagnosed problem was believed to be as a result of upper cervical complex subluxation and milk allergy. The doctor proposed treatment involving a combination of chiropractic manipulation of upper cervical complex and cranial treatment. This led to a temporary reduction in headaches and unchanged abdominal pain. The mother sought another opinion from a children doctor after seven treatments. The second consultation revealed regular colic, constant reflux, and periodic regurgitation of undigested food. These symptoms aggravated when the child assumed a recumbent posture. Abdominal pain on the stomach and lower chest made the doctor alter the initial diagnosis to GERD. The patient was referred to his general practitioner for GERD treatment and follow-up contacts revealed that the condition had improved immensely (Jonasson, and Knaap, 2006). Current Research History of the disease The prevalence of the disease has increased worldwide due to rising obesity and medicines that affect LES functions. Studies have indicated that approximately one third of the US population complain of GERD symptoms monthly (Narmeen and Woodward, 2013). Women have a higher rate of experiencing GERD symptoms than men. Western countries have a high prevalence ranging from 38 percent in Northern Europe to 9 percent in Italy. Annually, over 100 million proton pump inhibitors are prescribed to GERD patients in the western world. The high prevalence in western countries can be attributed to lifestyle, which is a major predisposing factor. The condition is a predisposing factor for esophageal cancer, which affects about 400, 000 people worldwide (Vats et al, 2006). Patients experience loss of appetite and damages to the lungs, throat, and ears due to excess ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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