Breast cancer - Essay Example

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Breast cancer has risen to become one of the most prevalent cancers in the world today. The cancer forms in the breast tissues. It is known to form in the tubes that carry milk to the nipple known as ducts and glands that make milk. The glands are known as lobules. In the early stages of breast cancer, the disease appears to be confined to the fatty tissues of the breast. …
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Download file to see previous pages The term metastatic is used when breast malignancy spreads to additional sections of the body (National Cancer Institute, 4). When 15 -20 per cent of the tumors shows a strong presence of the HER2, the condition is referred to as HER2 positive breast cancer. When this cancer is not treated, then extremely poor prognosis which leaves fast time to lapse or progression compared to HER2 negative breast cancer. Breast cancer happens to be the most common and prevalent cancer among women in the entire world (Hoffmann, 2). About 1.5 million cases are reported every year. These are new cases, leaving a chance form other million of cases which go unreported. Men can also be diagnosed with breast cancer although in extremely rare cases. Breast cancer among men accounts for less that 1 per cent in the world. Breast cancer has got many risk factors. The majority cases of breast cancer are reported among women who are above 50 years. The cancer is known to occur is families with a history of the cancer (National Cancer Institute, 4). It is also common in the late cases of the first pregnancy and among kinsfolk with a history of benign breasts ailments and diseases. A long menstrual life, which leads to a prolonged exposure to hormones, is classified as a risk factor to this devastating disease. Furthermore, the use of hormone replacement therapy which occurs often after menopause is viewed as another way of exposing the body the hormones making it vulnerable to breast cancer (Hoffmann, 2). Lifestyle risk factors are viewed as weighty reasons, which when, checked can help control the disease. They include physical inactivity and high alcohol intake. Being obese or overweight after menopause and a high fat diet is classified as lifestyle risk factors. In order to identify these risk factors, there are many epidemiological research and studies. However, having one or several risk factors does not mean that one has the disease. These are cases where the victims of breast cancer fail to show any risk factors (National Cancer Institute, 4). In the early stages of breast cancer, there are no symptoms. However, some of the known symptoms include changes in the nipple. This can lead to unusual secretion of discharge (National Cancer Institute, 4). This can also be accompanied by rashes around the nipple area. Another symptom is the change in shape or size of the breast. The most commonly known symptom is a hard lump that develops in the armpit of breast. This lump occurs on one side of the breast or the armpit (National Cancer Institute, 4). Changes in the skin are also a common symptom. This may lead to redness, dimples and puckering. There are a number of treatments associated with breast cancer (Hoffmann, 2). They include radiotherapy, surgery, hormonal therapies and chemotherapy. The use of these therapies is not standardized. They can be used alone or combined depending on the stage of breast cancer. The surgery includes mastectomy or lumpectomy. This is the best option or treatment among the patients whose cancer has not spread to other body parts. Some of the most vulnerable parts, when the cancer begins to spread included the lungs and chest walls. Radiotherapy is therapy with radiation which is directed to the place of the tumor, and it may be used on top of surgery. The effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is to lessen the probability of recurrent cancer. The treatment given after surgery is known as adjuvant therapy. Neo adjuvant therapy is a situation ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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