Nobody downloaded yet

The pathology of Parkinson's disease, and how to counteract it - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
This paper discusses the pathology and physiology of the Parkinson’s disease and the strategies being used/proposed to counteract it.  The idea of this research emerged from the author’s interest and fascination in how Parkinson’s disease can be treated using various methods…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.9% of users find it useful
The pathology of Parkinsons disease, and how to counteract it
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"The pathology of Parkinson's disease, and how to counteract it"

Download file to see previous pages This research will begin with the definition of Parkinson’s disease commonly referred to as PD as one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. PD affects mostly the neurons located in the nervous system. The affected neurons located in the basal ganglia cavity get deteriorated affecting the normal functions of the nervous system resulting in rigidity, tremor, and bradykinesia. The resulting PD conditions get worse with age making it complicated to treat and control. More studies have to be conducted in an effort to come up with better strategies to counteract the disease. In order to identify different treatment methods, the pathology of the disease has to be understood which has also proved to be a complex process. Studies conducted earlier have failed to identify the main factors behind PD irregular form making it almost impossible to come up with a single method of treating the disease. Parkinson’s condition normally affects the dopaminergic cells located in the substantial nigra region by altering their normal activity of secreting dopamine. Dopaminergic cells form part of the neural circuits and once the circuit inside the basal ganglia is affected, the process of regulating movement will be inhibited.  The movement regulation process involves both the indirect and direct pathways which are responsible for inhibiting and facilitating movement respectively. This implies that when the dopaminergic cells are lost, the disease condition will result in a movement disorder. PD results to the loss of more the 70% of the dopamine cells at its onset which is later followed by dopamine terminals asymmetric loss taking place in the striatum.
When a patient is affected by PD, his or her circuitry balance in normally lost. Such loss comes about as a result of dopamine depletion. The parts that are affected in this case are the indirect and direct pathways whose nuclei are responsible for inhibiting the thalamus. When the activities of these nuclei found in the pathways increase, the inhibition process is consequently increased reducing the normal movement of a person.
Another conditions resulting to the disease is the degeneration process that takes place in the presence of proteinaceous inclusions, which include; intracytoplasmic and Lewy bodies (LBs) (Blandini 1). The Lewy bodies are located in the brain cells and consist of different types of proteins which after degenerating they give rise to the PD conditions affecting the brain and the nervous system. The LBs can be easily identified when they affect the brain cells as they are spherical in shape with a core that is central and granular with a fibrillary halo surrounding it as shown in figure 1 bellow. The SNC activities are responsible for some of the PD symptoms including movement execution, tremors and muscle rigidity (Blandini 6).

Figure 1 showing a Lewy body located in the brain cell (Cuerda 102).
The death of Nigral cells is normally facilitated by the presence environmental toxins and the reduced number of Nigral cells consequently results in protein aggregation and mitochondrial defects (Blandini 1). The death of nigral cell is thus one of the main causes of neuron degeneration. Some of the factors leading to nigral cell death through abnormal apoptosis regulation include; impaired mitochondrial activities, proteasomal impairment or glutamate receptors excessive stimulation (Cuerda 102).
Several methods of treating and controlling PD have been proposed. Among the many strategies is the L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) which is the oldest and the mostly commonly used (Schapira 102). L-DOPA treatment targets nervous system barrier between the brain and blood forming a reduced section of the brain as shown in the figure bellow. Once in the brain, L-DOPA is converted to the dopamine where it is broken down to form various systems of enzymes in the brain. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“The pathology of Parkinson's disease, and how to counteract it Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1459794-the-pathology-of-parkinsons-disease
(The Pathology of Parkinson'S Disease, and How to Counteract It Essay)
“The Pathology of Parkinson'S Disease, and How to Counteract It Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1459794-the-pathology-of-parkinsons-disease.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Tissue process entails the diffusion of several substances out of and into stable porous tissues. The clinical use of tissue processing is always intended at generating thermodynamic tendency that can equalise concentration found either outside or inside a block of tissues (Shi, Cote and Chaiwun 1999, p.96).
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Parkinson's disease
It results from loss of brain cells charged with producing dopamine, a chemical responsible for relaying messages between the brain’s substantia nigra and other regions of the brain so as to control human body movement, hence an important chemical in ensuring smooth and coordinated muscle movements.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Parkinson's disease
The current medications which are used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s are Amantadine and Levodopa, which are 2 of several medications to alleviate the symptoms associated with the disease. The drug known as Amantadine is relatively common as a
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Pathology Science
Hereditary elliptocytosis is caused by mutations that cause disruptions in the cytoskeletal framework of red blood cells which are responsible for the elasticity of the circulating RBCs. The formation of spectrin tetramers which form a major part of
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Parkinson's Disease
s, such as tremor, flexed posture, impaired postural reflexes, bearing characterized by forward leaning, a mask like facial expression, and changes in handwriting. With the progression of the disease and consequent neuro-degeneration, patients may be unable to move (Alexi,
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Developments of research on Parkinson's disease
Its symptoms include tremors or trembling of the limbs and face while at rest; muscle stiffness/rigidity; slowing of movements or motor actions (Bradykinesia); and impaired coordination or imbalance. Patients
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Brief introductory description of physiology of the central nervous system related to Parkinson's disease
This research paper will primarily look at what happens when an individual is diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, the symptoms and its effect on the central nervous system. Parkinson’s
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
The liver is an important organ significant in a number of metabolic processes that include detoxification, deamination among others. In cases where the individual is a chronic drunkard, the liver may suffer irreversible damage as the liver tries to get rid of the
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Parkinson's Disease Case Study
This essay focuses not only on disease itself, but also uses statistics and real life examples, such as Mr. Adms's case to analyze the topic of parkinsons disease. The researcher also analyzes symtoms associated with Parkinson’s disease, such as resting tremors, muscle rigidity and bradykinesia are the three main symptoms and medication Mr. Adams has used.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Into Pathology
Pathology is a study that is quite scientific that some people do not agree with its principles. It could be offensive to others because of the categorization of people which could really be awful and destructive especially when one is categorized with a disease.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic The pathology of Parkinson's disease, and how to counteract it for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us