Genes - Essay Example

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DNA is the basic form in which instructions and information on the characteristics of any organism is stored in the cells. This information and instructions for the synthesis of the proteins is stored in DNA molecule…
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The sequence of these four nucleotide bases on a DNA molecule determine the sequence of amino acids on a given protein, that is, the genetic information on the DNA molecule provides the basis for the synthesis of proteins in a given organism. Starr and Taggart (2006) point out that all living organisms accomplish two key features for their survival, including manufacturing of their own energy and reproduction, through the biosynthesis of proteins using instructions and information encoded in their DNA molecules. Proteins play a central role in determining the architecture of a given cell, controlling cellular processes, catalyzing cellular reactions, as well as, providing membrane channels for cell to cell communication among other important roles. For the information and instructions for protein synthesis to be converted into proteins, there are two processes that are involved; transcription and translation. Clark and Pazdernik (2009) affirm that the genetic information contained in the DNA molecule, in form of a nucleotide sequence, is transformed into important biological use via two processes, transcription and translation....
The base-pairing rules dictate that A pairs with T ( U, in RNA) and C pairs with G. In transcription, one strand of the gene, a region of DNA coding for a protein, functions as the template for the synthesis of a complementary mRNA molecule (Clark and Pazdernik, 2009). For this to be accomplished, the double helix DNA molecule is first opened by a protein complex (helicases), and a section of the DNA molecule (gene), is used as a template for the synthesis of a complementary mRNA molecule by RNA polymerase or transcription machinery. Starr and Taggart (2006) point out that the biosynthesis of mRNA involves first the uncoiling of the double helix DNA molecule, followed by the heating or melting of the two strands at beginning of the gene to be expressed and finally the making of the mRNA molecule, complementary to the gene sequence on the template DNA strand, by RNA polymerase. During the assembly of the mRNA molecule, RNA nucleotides are used, and not DNA nucleotides. mRNA biosynthesis takes place in the 5’ to 3’ direction. The process stops when the transcription machinery encounters the stop codon. On reaching the stop codon, signalling the end of the gene, the transcription machinery disintegrates realising the newly synthesized mRNA from DNA, which recoils back to its original form (Starr, Evers & Starr, 2009). Translation Translation involves the conversion of the instructions and information contained in the newly synthesized mRNA into amino acid sequence or proteins. The information contained in the newly synthesized mRNA is used by the translation machinery to synthesize proteins. Starr, Evers and Starr (2009) state that the nucleotide sequence in mRNA dictates the amino acid sequence in the final polypeptide. In Read More
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