Nobody downloaded yet

What Effect Does ADX Have on Atherosclerosis - Article Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
What effect does ADX have on atherosclerosis? (10-week internship in the Bio-pharmaceutical department) Supervisors: Menno Hoekstra and Ronald v.d. Sluis Name: Parnjeet Singh Bains Student number: s0962368 Date: March 2011 Introduction: The adrenal glands reduce stress levels in the most common causes of stress; physical stress, chemical stress, thermal stress, emotional and mental stress…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.7% of users find it useful
What Effect Does ADX Have on Atherosclerosis
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "What Effect Does ADX Have on Atherosclerosis"

Download file to see previous pages Image 1 the image above shows the pathway by which the Adrenal glands respond to the signal triggered by the brain.1 When the adrenal glands are removed, there is a sudden decrease in the epinephrine, norepinephrine and hormones. This could lead to disastrous effects in the body. Reasons for an adrenalectomy could be due to an adrenal mass (incidental adenoma), pheochromocytoma, Conn’s Syndrome (aldostrenoma) and Cushing’s syndrome.2 Atherosclerosis is a stress inducing disease. The adrenal glands respond to the development of atherosclerosis and release hormones to reduce the further developing. In atherosclerosis the Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) enter the endothelial cells in the cell wall where they are oxidized. Oxidized LDL is toxic and induces inflammation. The monocytes, in the blood passing through the artery, respond to the inflammation and engulf the macrophages (cholesterol rich oxidized LDL). These form foam cells, filled with lipid. The cells die (apoptosis) and leave a lipid core. The body’s attempt to heal forms a fibrous cap over the lipid core. LDL growth continues causing the elastic membrane to stretch outward. Arterial remodeling takes place to maintain the artery’s shape, however if the lesion continues to grow the growth will continue inwards when it cannot stretch outward anymore. This narrows the diameter making it less easy for the blood to pass through, and the fibrous cap is now very thin after is has been stretched which increases chances of lesion rupture. Glucocorticoids are stress-response hormones; the hormone is released in response to stress in the body by the adrenal glands. Glucocorticoids also play a role in the further developing of atherosclerosis. The glucocorticoids inhibit the colony growth of macrophages; this is beneficial to reducing atherosclerosis. However, glucocorticoids have side effects which could increase the chances of developing atherosclerosis, such as high blood pressure, induction on hypercholesterolemia, impairment of glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, imbalance of thrombosis and fibronolysis.3 In the present study, I hypothesized that an adrenalectomy will lead to further the development of atherosclerosis in the LDL-knockout mice. To test this hypothesis, the levels of stress was compared to the development of atherosclerosis in both sham operated and adrenalectomized (ADX) mice. The genetic differences were compared after the sham operation and the adrenalectomy took place. This study demonstrates the effect of ADX on atherosclerosis. Methods: In this experiment 12 week old female LDL-receptor knockout mice were used. Supplied by, my supervisor Menno Hoekstra. The mice were caged in groups of four or five. The drink bottles contained a saline solution, from which the mice could drink at any time, also during fasting. Diet N is made up of cholesterol, fat and cholic acid. The experiment took place as follows; the mice were 6 weeks old when the ADX and SHAM operations took place. This is week 0. At two weeks the mice gained strength after being fed the chow diet. Blood was drawn at two weeks. At six weeks the mice were put on diet N and blood was drawn again. At 8 weeks the mice were sacrificed after blood was drawn. Sacrificing: The adrenalectomy takes place when ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“What Effect Does ADX Have on Atherosclerosis Article”, n.d.)
What Effect Does ADX Have on Atherosclerosis Article. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1456238-what-effect-does-an-adrenallectomy-have-on
(What Effect Does ADX Have on Atherosclerosis Article)
What Effect Does ADX Have on Atherosclerosis Article. https://studentshare.org/biology/1456238-what-effect-does-an-adrenallectomy-have-on.
“What Effect Does ADX Have on Atherosclerosis Article”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1456238-what-effect-does-an-adrenallectomy-have-on.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF What Effect Does ADX Have on Atherosclerosis

Does the unconscious cognitive effect Cognitive Activity

...? Does the Unconscious Cognitive affect Cognitive Activity? Introduction It is a known fact that people perceive the world and behave in a particularway based on their emotions and intuitions (Bolte, Goschke & Kuhl, 2011). Usually, all people experience a situation when they are unhappy and depressed, in such circumstances attention of an individual is more focused on rigid and in narrow ways, while on the contrary when people are happy and enthusiastic, their thoughts and minds are far reaching with new ideas and sensibility. The term ‘unconscious cognitive’ refers to mental structures and processes that directly or indirectly influence people’s enduring experiences and thoughts outside the conscious cognitive. Many...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

How Does Advertising Effect People

...? Does it create insecurity in order to sell goods? Does it cause people to buy things that they really don’t need?” Advertisements can have both positive and negative effect on people. In the ancient time ‘word of mouth’ was the most popular way of advertisements, today with the intervention of media and internet, advertisement has become an easy and popular mode of providing information. Advertising has different effects on people, it changes their prospective on what is, and what is not, worth buying, what they buy and when they buy it. Advertising affects people in what they do and how they do it. Advertising alone, however, does...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Atherosclerosis

...development of atherosclerotic is classified into six types with increasing effect of compromising the function of the arteries. The first four types of the atherosclerotic lesions do not produce clinical symptoms, while the fourth and fifth type produces clinical symptoms. These clinical symptoms are dependent on the site of compromise of the integrity of the artery. The metabolism of lipids and their serum levels, body fat, obesity, infections and inflammations have a role to play in the development of atherosclerosis and are high risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. In addition gender, heredity, diseases related to diet like metabolic syndrome, and...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

The relationship between atherosclerosis and stress

...in the arteries, consequently blocking the arteries. Because of the build-up, the hardened deposits may block the flow of blood along the arteries (Dugdale, 2009). In instances when the coronary artery becomes narrowed by plaque deposits, then blood flow to the heart itself can either slow down or be stopped. The patient can experience chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms when this happens (Dugdale, 2009). These fatty deposits may also break off (as embolus) and flow with the blood in the arteries and veins; they may eventually get lodged in the smaller blood vessels causing heart attacks or strokes (Dugdale, 2009). The causes for atherosclerosis have not been fully determined;...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

How does the internet effect social change

...Internet and Social Change The internet is simply described as interconnections of numerous independent computers, which is intended for communication and data transfer. In addition, it is regarded as a source of entertainment, information and communication with activities that include e-mail, web surfing, shopping and reading news (University of California). Moreover, internet connections have facilitated easy transfer of a variety of media from one location to another, thus enhancing sharing and building relations among people. As an entertainment tool, the internet creates influence on its audience by establishing a baseline of how things should be. This molds an individual into falsehood and can be easily manipulated....
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Does Economical Crisis Effect Consumer Behavior

..., the key objectives of the research will include: i. To analyze the sales of luxury brands during the economic crisis. ii. To investigate what techniques have been developed in order to maintain sales iii. To investigate whether consumers have changed their spending habits iv. To find out the long term impact of the economic crisis Rationale of the study This study will greatly benefit different parties for instance; current investors, potential investors, scholars, the government and consumers themselves. The current players in these industries will be able to gain knowledge on how their products are faring in the market and with this they are able to develop strategies on how to improve their...
2 Pages(500 words)Dissertation

How does Deforestation effect Malaria

... Deforestation and malaria Malaria has been a great burden and a health risk to many people living in poor and less developed countries. It is a viral disease caused by parasites carried by mosquitoes. Although scientists and physicians have tried controlling the spread of malaria through medical facilities, there is a need to use other control methods to ensure that spread of malaria does not exceed. Countries along the tropics also highly infected with malaria due to their favorable climatic conditions to mosquito breeding. The highly affected areas include Amazon, Central Africa and South-East Asia. These areas have a wide history of malaria infection due to the harsh climatic conditions and environmental degradation. According... . This...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

How does violent game effect to children

...Negative Effects of Violent Video Games Negative Effects of Violent Video Games Introduction People of all walks around the world receive a profound dose of influence, especially in films, TV programs, and video games. Several researchers have assessed the negative impacts of media violence for a considerably long time and have reached ultimatums on various important issues. Parents, on the other hand, usually wonder about the impacts of games, especially the violent ones, on their young ones and teenagers. In most instances, they underscore that excessive exposure must lead to various negative effects on children (Sherry, 2001). Irrespective of different...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

How does leisure activity effect the elderly

...How Does Leisure Activity Affect the Elderly? How Does Leisure Activity Affect the Elderly? Introduction It is apparent that the elderly have a lot of challenges as they try to cope with the old age. They have a lot to think about their health, unstable income and well as the welfare of their children. Therefore, these mixed reactions affect them both physically and psychologically. Studies have documented that elderly people are weak and can be affected by a combination of problems more easily than the young people. In this regard, it is critical for them to discover ways they can relieve the effects of the problems they encounter. This...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

How does technology effect students learning

...of most of the teacher, another effect of the use of technology is an increased inclination for the students towards working cooperatively and provision of peer tutoring. Even though most of the classrooms assign technology-based projects to a limited number of students, there is significant tutoring that takes place concerning how technology is utilized (Russell, 2006). For clear reasons, collaboration has to be fostered when students are supposed to work together when there are a limited number of computers to work with. The students with particular computer skills will generally have more pride and will enjoy their experiences as they help other students. References Aukrust, V. (2011). Learning and...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Article on topic What Effect Does ADX Have on Atherosclerosis for FREE!

Contact Us