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Diabetes Nutrition Therapy - Essay Example

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Diabetes is one of the major degenerative diseases in the United States and is a major risk factor for development of the cardiovascular disease. The disease is characterisized by a reduced ability to use and metabolize dietary carbohydrates, abnormally high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia), and an abnormal amount of sugar in the urine…
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Diabetes Nutrition Therapy
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Download file to see previous pages The control of this type of diabetes requires insulin therapy. There is no cure for IDDM.
NIDDM begins after the teen years. The progression of the disease is slow as compared to IDDM, and symptoms are mild in the beginning but progress in severity with time. NIDDM often progresses undetected until later stages. Treatment and control include weight reduction and lifestyle changes. Genetic factors probably contribute to the likelihood of developing NIDDM; however, lifestyle patterns, including overweight, poor diet, and lack of exercise, are as important if not more important in the development of this form of diabetes.
Symptoms of NIDDM are similar to those of IDDM; however the pathalogy of the disesae is different. The pancreas contains specialised cells called beta cells that secrete the hormone insulin in response to high blood sugar levels. In normal conditions, dietary carbohydrates are absorbed from the intestenal lining into the blood as glucose and other simple sugars. As blood sugar level rises, insulin is secreted from the pancreas and, in conjunction with Glucose Tolerance Factor, binds to specialized sites on the membranes of body cells and encourages the transportation of sugar from the blood into the cells. This serves two purposes; it lowers blood sugar levels and increases the availaibility of sugar(energy) for norma;l cell functioning. Blood insulin levels return to pre-meal levels as the blood sugar levels also decrease.
This process is arrested in the diabetic body. Blood sugar levels rise as a result of a meal, but the pancreas either does not secrete adequate amounts of insulin (IDDM) or normal amounts are secreted but the cells are unresponsive to the hormone (NIDDM). As a consequence, the blood sugar levels remain high; sugar pspills into the urine; and abnormal secondary conditions might develop, such as eye disorders and circulation problems. The cells remain starved for energy, so stored fat is broken down, raising the blood fat levels and increasing the person's risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Incomplete byproducts of fat metabolism build up in the blood, causing ketoacidosis or ketosis.
One person in ten with diabetes is insulin - dependent. IDDM diabetics usually have a reduced amount of active beta cells in the pancreas and cannot produce adequate amounts of insulin in response top carbohydrate intake. Insulin injections help to supplement the small amount produced by the pancreas and are timed to coordinate with food intake to maintain normal blood levels of glucose. Overinjection of insulin causes too much glucose to be removed from the blood and the person can enter a diabetic coma.
The other nine persons in ten with diabetes are non-insulin dependent. NIDDM diabetics can have reduced number of beta cells, but often their beta cells are normal and their insulin secretion is normal or even higher than normal. It is the body's cells that do not respond to the insulin. The insensitivity is associated with reduced numbers of insulin ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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