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Digestion From Beginning to End - Essay Example

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This essay analyzes that the food we eat contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and other nutrients. As part of the process of food digestion, the different enzymes amylase, maltase, lactase, urease, pepsin, trypsin, nucleases, and DNA polymerases such as act as biological catalysts in the human body…
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Digestion From Beginning to End
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"Digestion From Beginning to End"

Located on the anterior part of the hard palate, the rugae facilitate the movement of food backward towards the pharynx. (See Appendix I to IV – Nutritional Contents of Double Cheeseburger, French Fries, Chocolate Shake and Apple Pie on pages 4 to 7) Among the types of food that is rich in carbohydrates include a double cheeseburger, French fries, apple pie, and double thick chocolate shake. Secreted by the salivary glands, the presence of salivary amylase or ptyalin inside the mouth aims to catalyze the hydrolysis of starch molecules or carbohydrates into simple sugar such as maltose. After the carbohydrates are broken down by the salivary amylase, the next digestion of carbohydrates will take place inside the small intestine when the pancreas releases some pancreatic amylase. On the other hand, the intestinal mucosa secretes maltase and lactase enzymes which are responsible for converting maltose to glucose, and lactose to glucose and galactose respectively. For easy swallowing, the saliva contains mucin which acts as a lubricant. When swallowing the food, the epiglottis prevents the food from entering into the trachea. Eventually, the bolus will pass through the esophagus before entering the stomach. A double cheeseburger, French fries, apple pie, and double thick chocolate shake are also rich in fats and protein. As part of the chemical digestion that takes place inside the stomach, the enzyme known as the gastric lipase breaks down fats whereas the gastric protease or pepsin breaks down the protein. After the stomach muscles further break down the food and mix it with gastric juice, the food moves into the duodenum through the pyloric valve. At this point of digestion, the food is already known as the chyme. In most cases, the pancreatic and bile ducts open into the duodenum at a point close to the pylorus. When the gastric gland secretes gastrin or gastric juice, the hydrochloric acid (HCl) that is present in the gastro secretion kills the bad bacteria present in the food. Without affecting the good bacteria, HCl also aids in converting inactive pepsinogen into active pepsin. Basically, the pepsin breaks down proteins into peptides. In case of the gastric gland releases too much HCl, the pancreas releases sodium bicarbonate in order to neutralize some of the excess acids that is present in the chime. Most of the chemical digestion occurs in the small intestine. As part of the digestion that takes place inside the small intestine, the liver secretes bile acids which play a significant factor in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Most of the food digestion that takes place inside the small intestine is possible due to the presence of the pancreas. Major organs and enzymes that assist in the food digestion that occurs in the small intestine include the pancreatic juice that is secreted by the pancreas, the intestinal juice secreted by the small intestine, and the emulsification of fats or lipids coming from the gallbladder and the liver. In line with this, the pancreatic amylase or amylopsin secreted by the pancreas is responsible in converting starch into maltose, the pancreatic lipase which is secreted by both the gastric mucosa and the pancreas is responsible in splitting fats into fatty acids and glycerol, and the pancreatic proteases. Read More
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