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Their digestive system is composed of the mouth, tongue, gall bladder, pancreas, the four compartment stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum), salivary glands, the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), esophagus and the large intestine, which include; cecum, colon, and rectum (Brooker 5).
A ruminant animal uses its mouth and tongue to harvest forages and consume feedstuffs during grazing. Cattle pick up feeds during grazing by grasping and gathering the plants with their tongues and pulling them to tear for consumption. On average, cattle take from 25,000 to over 40,000 prehensile bites each day when grazing and harvest forage. Typically, spend over 30 percent of their time grazing, another 30 percent of their time chewing cud, and the rest of their time idling where they are not grazing or chewing cud (Hall 9).
The roof of their mouth is a hard dental pad without incisors. The incisors on the lower jaw work against this hard dental pad. The incisors of roughage selectors are wide and have a shovel-shaped crown while those of concentrate selectors are narrower and chisel-shaped. They have the same number of molars and premolars both on the upper and lower jaws. The ruminants use their teeth to crush and grind feeds during chewing and rumination (Hall 9).
Saliva helps in moistening the feeds hence making easy when chewing and swallowing. Saliva contains enzymes, which breaks down the starch (salivary amylase) and fat (salivary lipase) and is involved in recycling of nitrogen to the rumen. In the rumen and reticulum, the pH level is reduced by saliva. On average, in a day, a mature cow will produce up to 50 quarts of saliva; this is in relation with the amount of time they spend chewing feeds, which stimulates saliva production. The forage and feed mixes with saliva, which contains bicarbonate, sodium, phosphate, potassium and urea when consumed, to form a bolus. The bolus then moves from the mouth to the reticulum
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“Animal System Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1595107-animal-system.
They include cats, dogs, some species of birds, rabbits, and in some extents fish. Following a research in 2010 by the national council on pet population, pets were found to be prone to abandonment when their owners move out or get bored with them. “These pets are forced to face hard times because they do not have a way to care for themselves” (Everett 47).
It is hard to believe the sheer number of technological advances as the human race has made within the past few decades. However, like any type of advancement, the price of this technological advancement has been an explosion of comfort and consumption oriented industries; not the least of which is that of “fast food”.
This report has discussed about the structure, motivation, origin and goals of ALF to justify the ideology and motive of the Animal Liberation front. In addition to this, the report has discussed about the threat of ALF
The researcher states that laws and regulations have been imposed for three decades already, yet laws protecting chicken are not given attention. This observation made the author be interested in laws that cover protection to chicken. Chickens are important to livelihood and food, so its safety is for the common good.
There are various characters presented in Orwell’s book with various character traits. Napoleon is one of the leaders among other pigs in the farm. He emerges as opportunistic and corrupt individual who benefits at the expense of other animals in the society. He always award special privileges to his fellow pigs and in most cases to himself.
Farmers and veterinarians view animal welfare as the physical environment and the body, and if the animal is faring well that is it is healthy and producing well (Hewson 496).
Animal research in regards to the animal welfare has primarily focused on the body and
Many writers at the time were split due to this conflict as well as the rest of the public, although Orwell was already disillusioned the acts of communism operating under Soviet leader by the name Joseph Stalin, under his rule communism dominated the affairs
Indeed, this practice has been in use from mid to late 1800s. In the early 1920s, the phenomenon of using live non-human animals to study the potential effects of toxics in an array of drugs came into use. The assumption is that the effects of such products on the animal used in the experiment are similar to that they would have on humans.
These are controversies circulating around animal experimentation. In 2009, Dixon delineates justifications from the pros and cons groups. The pros argued that animal experimentation results in an important medical breakthrough that will reduce human suffering and death; a good example of this is the experimentation on mice regarding the role of penicillin in fighting bacterial infections (Paul, 4).
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