Introduction Histology and molecular diagnostics play a critical role in the characterization of diseases in their most basic states and establishing the pathology of diseases. These techniques have been used in the characterization of various types of malignant cells in human beings and as a result act as necessary adjuvant in the study of oncology (Coleman, 2009, p.89)…
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Staining is one of the techniques used in the characterization of cancer cells. The most commonly used staining methods and Hematoxylin and Eosin staining. Generally the two methods have been used to differentiate between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of cells. Hematoxylin stains the nucleus purple while Eosin stains the cytoplasms pink. Cancer cells can also be stained particularly to differentiate them from other cells. However, it is imperative to note that there are preparation processes that should take place in order for tissue staining to be specific and relevant (Ahmed, 2007, p.490). Histopathology is a technique that involves the studying of disease development in tissues at the microscopic level. In medicine histopathology refers to the examination of tissue biopsies that have already been prepared through histological techniques and placed on glass slides. The histological techniques used in sample preparation are tissue harvesting, fixation, embedding, mounting and staining of the tissue sections. Tissue harvesting: it involves the surgical removal of the tissue followed fixing to ensure that the tissue is stable and that it does not decay. Fixation: two methods are used; chemical fixation and freeze fixation. Chemical fixation is done using formalin while freeze fixation is done using cryo-protectants such as OCT, TBS or Cryogel before freezing. Mounting: Tissues are placed in paraffin before being sectioned using a microtome before they are stained. Staining: The processed tissues are stained for viewing under a microscope. Objectives I. To prepare low and high power drawings of normal skin, breast and colon tissues. II. To prepare low and high power drawings of one diseased skin specimen or one diseased colon specimen. III. To prepare low power diagrams of all three diseased breast tissue specimens IV. To answer the relevant questions in the practical manual Materials I. Light microscope. II. Blank plain paper. III. Pencil IV. Specimens: a) Colon - Normal human - Polyposis b) Skin - Normal human - Basal cell carcinoma - Malignant Melanoma - Squamous cell carcinoma c) Breast - Normal human - Lobular hyperplasia - Fibrodenoma Methods Human Colon The slide was held up to the light and the darker purple staining layer of the gastric mucosa (inner most layer of colon) identified. The slide was then place on the stage so that the inner layer of the colon was on top. The upper edge of the specimen was then focused under low power magnification of the microscope (X40) and the following areas identified: gastric mucosa, muscularis mucosa, sub-mucosa and muscularis. After the major layers had been identified, the following layers were labeled: mucosa, colonic glands, gastric pits, sub-mucosa, muscularis mucosa (inner and outer layers) and blood vessels. A high power drawing of the gastric mucosa was the prepared and the following labeled: surface epithelium, colonic glands, goblet cells and lymphoid follicles. The same procedure was repeated for diseases colon cells and the differences between tissue specimens identified. Human Skin The slide was held up to the light to identify the outer layer of the skin. The slide was then placed on the stage so that the surface of the skin was positioned on top. The upper edge of the specimen was focused under low
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With regards to the molecular aspects of aging, it is usually characterized by the accumulation of defective or inactivated forms of various enzymes, possibly due to oxidative damage by agents such as free radicals (Stadtman 131). A certain group of protein regulators that control enzymatic products called the polycomb group (PcG) control various gene loci that are essential to an organism, and one of these loci is the Ink4a locus, which contains genes responsible for senescence in organisms (Mishra and Mishra 135).
Others include infiltration of inflammatory cells into the stomach and production of auto- antibodies to various proteins. It also involves the intrinsic factor and proton pump of parietal cells whereby intrinsic factor can be identified as the factor that is involved in the absorption of vitamin B12.
Name Institution Date of submission Abstract The main objective of the experiment was to ascertain the level of contamination on the things we use on daily basis to make our face that include brush, Chap Stick and mascaras. This was achieved by morphological test.
Vitamin B12 is normally absorbed in the walls of the ileum. The vitamin helps in maturation of red blood cells. According to Doctor Mellissa Conrad (Conrad, 1996), the large multinucleated cells known as megaloblasts circulate in the blood cells but do not act like blood cells.
have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) (Vijayvergiya, 2007). This interest has been stimulated by the frequent finding of bacterial antigen and occasionally recoverable organism within human atherosclerotic plaque and by seroepidemiologic studies.
Abbreviations: Inr= initiator sequence of the RNA polymerase II promoter; UCE= upstream control element of the RNA polymerase I promoter.
A 29 kilo base (kb) linear DNA fragment is digested with ApeK I, Bst I and Cla I, individually and in combination, and the resulting DNA fragment sizes are determined by agarose gel electrophoresis.
The author states that microbes can be classified into various groups depending on their morphological and biochemical features. The Lancefield grouping is a method of clustering catalase-negative, coagulase-negative bacteria according to the carbohydrate structure of bacterial antigens present on their cell walls.
Salmonella typhimurium is a leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans
This experiment tested the histidine requirements of the auxotrophic mutant strains and their spontaneous reversion rate. The experiments were carried using either wild