Nobody downloaded yet

C-Difficile - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic bacterium that can cause gastrointestinal symptoms ranging from mild diarrhea to very intense and severe colon infections. Hall and O’Toole were the first scientists who described Bacillus difficilis in 1935 as an important part of the bacterial family, isolated from the feces and meconium of infants…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.9% of users find it useful
C-Difficile Research Paper
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample

Download file to see previous pages Moreover, outbreaks of C. difficile infection in Canada and U.S.A. have been linked with the highly resistant and virulent strain of the bacterium, NAP-I/027 and have been found resistant to the fluoroquinolones drug treatment (Allday 2012 para 3; Aktories & Wilkins 2000 p. 1 & 2; Talley et al 2010 n.p.). The microbiology of C. difficile, the pathophysiology of infection in humans, clinical presentation, risk factors, diagnostic strategies and preventive measures will be discussed.
The microbiological study of C. difficile has brought forward some significant features about the bacterium. It is an anaerobic bacterium which means that it requires oxygen for its survival and spore-bearing. It stains mostly Gram-positive and has a length variation of 3-5 um. Animal reservoirs for C. difficile have been located but no direct association with human infection has been established. C. difficile spreads in the infants and neonates predominantly by nosocomial infection rather than vertical transmission. An important aspect is that infants up to the age of 12 months are protected from the diarrheal symptoms, probably because they lack the receptors required for the toxin action. The bacteria spread mostly from contact with contaminated skin, food items, clothes or any other surface. C. difficile spreads from the feces of an infected person to the healthy individuals. (Aktories & Wilkins 2000 p. 2-5; Allday 2012 para 12). The spores produced by the bacteria are orally ingested by the humans leading to the formation of C. difficile colonies in the gut. The infected individuals develop Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea while some also remain asymptomatic and show no active infection. C. difficile produces two exotoxins- A and B- which cause disruption of the epithelium of the colon by binding to the epithelial cells. The production of inflammatory cells and cytokines leads to mucosal inflammation and small ulcer formation in the gut (Talley et al 2010 n.p.). The clinical features of the C. difficile infection are described as watery, non-bloody diarrhea and episodes of abdominal pain. Severe infections can lead to development of ileus and even shock. Non-specific signs include low-grade fever, dehydration and abdominal tenderness. A criterion to describe the severity of the infection involves the parameters of age, temperature, albumin level, WBC count, endoscopy findings and treatment in intensive care unit. A score of greater than or equal to 2 within 48 hours is designated as severe Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (Talley et al 2010 n.p.). The risk factors for C. difficile infection mainly focus on the elderly population, people taking antibiotic or antacid therapy or those with a prolonged stay in hospital environments. According to a report, recurrence was found to be higher in those who were taking medications that were H2 receptor blockers (Worcester 2012 para 1- 3). People above the age of 65 years are at high risk for severe or complicated infection. Other risk factors include tube feeding within 2 months, immunosuppression and excessive usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics (Talley et al 2010 n.p.). Enzyme immunoassay is the standard test for the diagnosis of the C. difficile toxins A and B in the stool samples. The test results are available within 24 hours. Colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy is helpful in ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“C-Difficile Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words”, n.d.)
C-Difficile Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1446056-c-difficile
(C-Difficile Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
C-Difficile Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words. https://studentshare.org/biology/1446056-c-difficile.
“C-Difficile Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1446056-c-difficile.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Research paper
The research is done via a primary as well as secondary research to arrive at definitive findings and conclusions so as to suggest practical recommendations to address the issue. The
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper
Clostridium Difficile
The unnecessary use and over-prescription of antibiotics have been known to result in the development of resistance. One critical drawback of such practices is C. difficile infection (CDI), which induces diarrhea, colitis, and pseudomembranous colitis (Wilcox 2003).
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Research paper
In this paper the decision of India to send a space vehicle to Mars is evaluated taking into consideration the country’s overall needs and its financial status. The paper is against the India’s space program. This thesis is justified in the paper using appropriate scientific evidence.
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
Research Paper
According to Wikipedia (Toyota, n.d.), the company was founded in 1933 with the division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works that was devoted to the production of automobiles. However, in 1937 it already performed its activities as an independent company. Since its
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Research Paper
Lanza later shot himself in the head when he security personnel arrived to arrest him. Reports about the incident released by the Connecticut State Attorneys office concluded that Adam Lanza acted alone. However, the report could
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Research Paper
Many leaders have come and gone without reaching a final solution, although it looked possible through dialogue, a few times, during recent past. Arab-Israel conflict being the basis
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper
Research paper
The United States of America, a former colony of the Great Britain, follows these principles. Native Americans for thousands of years governed themselves through tribal laws, cultural traditions,
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Research paper
In this regard, most societies hold the opinion that individuals who grow up with autonomy-thwarting parents have lower chances of exploring their sexual values and identities and therefore disregard social aspects that
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper
Statistically, two of every three Americans are associated with overweight; this number translates to 67% of the American residents. On the other hand, it is estimated that 36% of Americans suffer
9 Pages(2250 words)Research Paper
Research paper
Like every other country or region, Middle East also has its own culture, religion, economic conditions, and environment. Moreover, it has its impact on the rest of the world through its economic activities (majorly through oil export). This paper aims to critically present my own perspective regarding the Middle East; its environment, culture, political issues, religion, and the situation of war in the region.
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic C-Difficile Research Paper for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us