Infectious diseases and Antibiotics Infectious diseases or communicable diseases caused by the growth of microorganism such as a virus, bacterium, prion, protozoa or fungus in human body. One of the major problems associated with infectious diseases is the ability of such diseases to spread from one person to another within in a short period of time…
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Classification, transmission, prevention, diagnosis and therapy of infectious diseases Infectious diseases can be classified as follows based on the causative organism of infection; “Bacterial – Gram negative and Gram positive Viral – DNA virus, RNA virus, enveloped vs non-enveloped Fungal – Disseminated, Localised Parasitic – Protozoa, Helminths” (Epidemiologic Aspects of Infectious Diseases, p.2) Microbes or microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, have the ability to overcome the resistance raised by the defence mechanisms of our body. Among the microbes described above, viruses are the smallest in size and it can be visible only through microscopes. Infectious diseases can be transmitted through various ways; it can be transmitted from direct contacts as well as indirect contacts. Direct contact between a diseased person and others through touching, embracing, kissing or coughs can cause transmission of the germs. Diseased pet animals can also cause transmission of microbes when people handle such animals. Infectious diseases can be spread through air and water also. It should be noted that a diseased person can deposit huge amounts of microbes in places where he usually visits. For example, while taking foods, a diseased person can transfer big amounts of microbes into the table top. ...
Communicable diseases can be prevented with the help of certain precautionary measures. Once a person is diagnosed with a communicable disease, he should be kept in an isolated room. All the equipment used by him should be handled with care. For examples, the plates and spoons used by the patient should be sterilised before reusing it. Only boiled water should be used for drinking purpose whenever the threats from communicable disease on cards. While attending the duties of the patient, a mask should be worn by the attenders. Hand gloves should be used while come in direct contact with the patient. It is often said that “Preventions is better than cure”. In the case of communicable diseases, the above saying has more importance. Precautionary vaccines are available to prevent communicable diseases. All the children should be vaccinated against communicable diseases as advised by the paediatrician. Children are more vulnerable to communicable diseases because of their immature immune system. Once the communicable disease epidemic started in a location, the health authorities should advocate people about the necessary precautions to prevent the spreading of disease. Diagnosis of the communicable disease is often done with the help of laboratory tests. Blood and urine tests are usually conducted to identify the culprits or the microbes. X rays and scanning are also used in some particular cases for the diagnosis of the communicable disease. In some cases, even physical examination may help the doctor to diagnose the disease based on the symptoms present in the patient. Vaccination is the common method of treatment of communicable diseases. It is the process of supplying proper antigens to the diseased
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While AIDS is only the trigger, its sequels - diarrhea, tuberculosis, and systemic fungal infections are the bullets that actually kill. These sequels need special attention as all three in their non-AIDS context are of a socio cultural nature: tuberculosis is a socio-economic disease caused by malnutrition and diarrhea and systemic fungal infections are caused by poor hygiene and contaminated water.
However, there exists a difference between antibiotics. For example, there those with wider action are known as broad-spectrum antibiotics while those that are effective to only few organisms are known as narrow spectrum antibiotics (American Academy of Paediatrics 2013).
The present study would focus on antibiotics, medicines that fight bacteria and viruses, either by killing the invading bacteria or by weakening them so that the immune system can fight and kill them more rapidly. Most of antibiotics are bacteria fighters; although there are millions of viruses, there are only half-a-dozen or so antibiotics available.
They are mainly to be thought of as agents which would find great potential as second line components of a multidrug treatment regimen, given in tandem with first line antitubercular drugs. They are expected to work best when administered in the early phase of treatment, and should typically be used in conjunction with beta-lactamase inhibitors.
An Outcome-Based Approach For Teaching Prudent Antimicrobial Prescribing To Undergraduate Medical Students: Report Of A Working Party Of The British Society For Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy; 56: 196 - 203.
Leibovici, L., Soares-Weiser, K., Paul, M., Goldberg, E., Herxheimer, A., and Garner, P., (2003).Considering Resistance In Systematic Reviews Of Antibiotic Treatment.
, especially socioeconomic conditions, are usually beyond the control of individuals and require a concerted effort by communities and government to alter. However, poor socioeconomic conditions have been conclusively linked with a propensity to suffer from all types of diseases
Prison guards in particular have certain guidelines that they follow in order to protect their own health effectively but they must also try and stabilize the health of inmates in the prison as well. Therefore the literature explicitly discusses the legal berth of the new protocols that have been established and the role of health care providers inside the prison environment.
he prison population is growing every year which continually adds to a widespread health crisis that has yet to be properly addressed by corrections officials, law enforcement or the justice system. The proliferation of infectious diseases such as AIDS, Tuberculosis and
The author states that the risk factors of this disease are the food and water borne diseases due to contaminated food and water. Personal hygiene and sanitation is not emphasized upon in this nation hence the reason they use contaminated water especially from the Pacific Ocean and their food is contaminated.
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