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Misuse and Abuse of Antibiotics - Essay Example

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Baquero, F., Baquero-Artigao, G., Cantn, R., and Garca-Rey, C., (2002). Antibiotic Consumption And Resistance Selection In Streptococcus pneumoniae. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy; 50: pp. 27 - 38
Davenport, L.A.P., Davey, P.G., Ker, J. S. on behalf of the BSAC Undergraduate Education Working Party, (2005)…
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Misuse and Abuse of Antibiotics
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Download file to see previous pages regulated. Despite the Penicllin Act of 1948, more and more resistant strains of bacteria

kept evolving, and continued research led to development of newer and newer antibiotics.

The effect was devastating. In 1950s, a resistant strain of the bacteria, Staphylococcus

aureus led to catastrophic events throughout the world, especially in the hospital setting

and especially in children admitted to the hospital. Thus, the mechanism of resistance

was probed into, and researches ultimately found that development of resistance is

produced by indiscriminate use of the antibiotics, and such use may well be termed as

misuse or abuse (Wenzel, R.P., 2002).

The rational use of antibiotics is dependent on understanding of their

mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, toxicities, interactions; bacterial strategies of

resistance; and bacterial susceptibilities in vitro. The acquired resistance is a well-known

major limitation to effective antibacterial chemotherapy. Bacterial resistance to

antibiotics develop by mutation of the resident bacterial genes or by acquisition of new

genes that resist antibiotics to cause bacterial death. Almost all bacteria have cellular

mechanisms of transmission of genetic traits by a system of mobile genetic elements,

such as, plasmids, transposons, and bacteriophages (Martnez, J.L. and Baquero, F.,

2002). As a result, the new genes mediating resistance are spread from bacteria to

bacteria to create a colony of resistant bacteria. Such populations flourish in areas of high

antibiotic use where they enjoy a selective advantage over susceptible population.

To answer the question how resistance becomes operative, one can deduce that the

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy; 52: 564 - 571.
Martnez, J.L. and Baquero, F., (2002). Interactions among Strategies Associated with Bacterial Infection: Pathogenicity, Epidemicity, and Antibiotic Resistance. Clinical Microbiologic Review; 15: pp. 647 - 679.
Metlay, J.P., Shea, J.A., and Asch, D.A., (2002). Antibiotic Prescribing Decisions of Generalists and Infectious Disease Specialists: Thresholds for Adopting New Drug Therapies. Medical Decision Making; 22: 498 - 505. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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