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Superbugs and misusage of antibiotics - Essay Example

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Superbugs and misuse of antibiotics By Institution 04 December 2013 Superbugs and misuse of antibiotics Currently, there exist several types of antibiotics. Some of these antibiotics have been developed to provide resistance to bacteria, virus, fungus, and parasites…
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Download file to see previous pages However, the common used of antibiotics is for bacterial resistance. The discovery of antibiotics was only possible in the 19th century (History Learning Site 2013). One of the main contributors to the development of antibiotics was Alexander Fleming. He accidentally discovered penicillin in 1928 from a culture plate of Staphylococcus bacteria (FAS n.d.). The culture plate had been left unattended during a two weeks vacation and became invested with Penicillium notatum mold (FAS n.d.). In the plate, he noted there was a clear space surrounding the yellow green mould. The observation led to a postulate that Penicillin was capable of limiting bacteria growth (FAS n.d.). In later periods, other researchers took over and were able to purify penicillin. Moreover, there was more production of penicillin in pharmaceuticals industries for treatment of soldiers during World War II (FAS n.d.). Consequently, penicillin was used in the treatment of pneumonia, diphtheria, syphilis, gonorrhoea, and many other infections (FAS n.d.). Since this period, there has been the emergence of various antibiotics. On the other hand, there has been increased use of antibiotics in hospitals and patients. As a result, the constant use and reliance on antibiotics have led to their abuse. Consequently, this has led to antibiotics resistance with disastrous consequences to the community and health care sector. One of such bacteria is Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The bacteria have been popular especially in British hospitals. A study carried out showed that MRSA bacteria in the United Kingdom were more than 15 times as compared to the safest countries (Marsh 2013). A reflection on MRSA helps in highlighting its impact, ways of spread, treatment, prevention and public health participation by society and politician. The antibiotic resistance has become an area of concern. The resistance occurs when strains of bacteria in the human or animal body becomes resistant to antibiotics due to poor use and abuse of antibiotics (American College of Physicians (ACP) 2013). Some of the resistance develops in hospitals. This is because in hospitals, there is usually administration of millions of doses of antibiotics in a day (ACP 2013). As a result, there is increased chance of developing resistance in hospital as compared to other sectors. Moreover, some of the prescription may be faulty. This may occur as the doctors prescribe the use of antibiotics for cold, coughs and other viral infections (Pechere 2001). On the other hand, there are those individuals that demand physicians to authorize the use of antibiotics just because of common cold. Moreover, other gets antibiotics over the counter. Consequently, most of antibiotics are taken for control of viral infection instead of bacterial disease. Therefore, failure to test by physicians leads to increased dose of antibiotics taken for viral disease. Consequently, majority of antibiotics are abused and misused. On the other hand, failure to complete the dosage of antibiotics as prescribed by doctor lead to the development of resistance (ACP 2013). Therefore, the improper use and abuse of antibiotics has contributed significantly to the development of antibiotic resistance (ACP 2013). Various types of superbug have emerged today. One example is the Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) (Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2000). However, its problem arose in 1996 as it was in hospital patients in Australia (ABC ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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