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For example, there are approximately 2 million cases of antibiotic resistant infections and about 23, 000 deaths in the United Sates every year (Trossman, 2014, p.1). This implies that antibiotic resistance is an imminent problem that requires to be addressed. However, not all superbugs have ties to hospital medication and some actually have ties and are spread in the community. Nevertheless, the most common superbugs are related to hospital medications hence necessitating the need for further research in relation to medication related superbugs.
Once bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics, there is imminent need to develop better antibiotics that are seemingly stronger in order to get rid of these bacteria. Antibiotics in use for the first time are referred to as first-line antibiotics while the newly developed antibiotics are second-line agents and depending on the severity of the bacteria, the agents can be developed further even to third-line and fourth-line antibiotics. For example, MRSA has proven resistant to a number of antibiotics thereby necessitating the need to develop antibiotics further third-line and in some environments fourth-line antibiotics. For example, studies by National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance in 2003 showed that 60% of Staphylococcus aureus related infections were resistant to methicillin (Capriotti, 2007, p.1). However, all antibiotics developed after the first line antibiotics are not keen to such factors as safety, availability and cost as compared to the first line antibiotics. This implies that predecessors of first-line antibiotics may not be readily available in all areas thereby further increasing the problem of superbugs.
Superbugs are mainly formed through genetic mutations or procurement of new genes from the continued interactions between bacteria. Gene transfer between bacteria is facilitated by the fact that they mostly
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The Molecular Mechanism That Make Staphylococcus Aureus Resistant To Antibiotics Name Student ID Course Tutor Date Introduction, An antibiotic is a substance that kills bacteria by disrupting a critical function, usually coded by a definite protein in the bacteria.
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This is followed by review of literature and then a conclusion. Thesis statement How can health professionals prevent antibiotic-resistant infection? Introduction Antibiotic resistance may be defined as a type of drug resistance in which the organism survives exposure to the antibiotic that is administered targeting it.
S. aureus has a very vast and major disease spectrum which includes skin and soft tissue infections, osteomyelitis, sepsis, muscle and visceral abscesses, pleural empyema, bloodstream infections, endocarditis and toxin-mediated syndromes such as scalded-skin syndrome and toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning (Crossley et al 272).
Various antibiotics work differently on various types of bacteria, but for one aim. By definition, antibiotics are ineffective against viruses and thus prescribing antibiotics when unnecessary or ineffective encourages increase in antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains.
Her words unnerved me for it means that despite the technological advances we have attained in the field of medicine, it is still possible for modern-day citizens to die from drug-resistant medieval diseases. If we do not respond to the problem of superbugs, our future will most likely be filled with superbug-related morbidity and mortality.
However, there exists a difference between antibiotics. For example, there those with wider action are known as broad-spectrum antibiotics while those that are effective to only few organisms are known as narrow spectrum antibiotics (American Academy of Paediatrics 2013).
His medieval end has been the modern end for many people dying from infectious diseases because of antimicrobial resistance. In 2007, Monina Klevens and her research team at Centers for Disease Control and
However, there exist some bacteria that are resistance to numerous antibiotics. Collins (2002) describes them as MDR (multidrug resistant) or superbugs. Multiple researchers have categorized drug resistance as
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