Antibiotic resistance, according to Chadwick, (2011), is a form of resistance to drugs by microorganism causing diseases such as bacteria and plasmodium. In this case, these microorganisms are able to survive even after they are exposed to one or more types of antibiotics…
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Through natural selection mechanism, the organisms that survive the killer antibiotic give rise to a new generation of resistant bacteria.
This article analyzes various ways on how the menace of drug resistance can be curbed. To achieve the objectives, the article focuses on research done by experts on the issues and possibilities of mending any loopholes in the research so as to eliminate cases of drug resistance.
Available data in the heath sector shows that some of the diseases that medical practitioners used to cure with ease are becoming more expensive and difficult to cure. Moreover, the WHO (world health organization) has a recently been announcing the rising trend in the demand of new types of antibiotic. In this, the global body claims that the existing antibiotics have consistently been failing to eliminate some microorganisms, Ochiai (2011). The data has clearly indicated that the cases of drug resistance by microbial is on a rising spree. Though the data is consistent with the many deaths resulting from formerly curable diseases, experts have not been able to provide sufficient evidence of new resistant mechanisms apart from the ancient rationale of gene resistance, p. 158. To close the information gap, Collins (2002) suggests that researchers have to find out a justification for the new resistance mechanism.
Among the many techniques that used to eliminate cases of drug resistance, completion of antibiotic dosage has proved to be quite reliable. Shnayerson & Plotkin (2003) declare that when a patient successive undergoes a complete antibiotic therapy, microbial is given little time to mutate. In the circumstance that the treatment is not completed, a new generation of bacteria that cannot be eliminated with that particular drug would begin p.526. On the other hand, introduction of a mild form of bacteria in the form of vaccination has failed to curb resistance. Coates (2012) asserts that the immune
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The author analyzes the importance of accurate identification of bacteria and the necessary materials and methods. He shows newer procedures of rapid identification of bacteria like mass spectrometry and computional analysis, microarray-based identification and other that allow faster and affective method of identifying bacteria and other microorganisms.
This is done using the Kirby and Bauer method. The paper is divided into three sections. Section one is an introduction to the process of bacterial sensitivity to various antibiotics and various methods used in testing for sensitivity.
This research aims to evaluate and present bacterial transformation and gene expression. The research will demonstrate two important genetic engineering tools used for the expression of the foreign gene of interest in the given bacterial cell and three conditions required for the transformation.
have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) (Vijayvergiya, 2007). This interest has been stimulated by the frequent finding of bacterial antigen and occasionally recoverable organism within human atherosclerotic plaque and by seroepidemiologic studies.
Abbreviations: Inr= initiator sequence of the RNA polymerase II promoter; UCE= upstream control element of the RNA polymerase I promoter.
A 29 kilo base (kb) linear DNA fragment is digested with ApeK I, Bst I and Cla I, individually and in combination, and the resulting DNA fragment sizes are determined by agarose gel electrophoresis.
The paper gives a review of E-Coli transformed by plasmid DNA using a rapid method and can be categorized into four stages. The first is Pre-incubation stage. In this the cells are immersed in a cat ions solution and incubated at 0ºCThis immersion is supposed to help the negatively charged phosphates of lipids in the E-Coli membrane.
The bacterial physiology, Gram’s staining method, Microscopic examination, colony morphology, cellular morphology; biochemical testing and DNA sequencing are the methods that will help us to identify the
The author states that microbes can be classified into various groups depending on their morphological and biochemical features. The Lancefield grouping is a method of clustering catalase-negative, coagulase-negative bacteria according to the carbohydrate structure of bacterial antigens present on their cell walls.
Bacteria are the minutest disease causing organisms. Most of the diseases we study about are caused by bacterial infections e.g. tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculin. For the eradication and elimination antibiotics and antiseptics were invented. Antibiotics are bacteriostatic, which means they stop bacterial multiplication.
Bacterial cell quantification can be done in several ways, but this experiment will be using a spectrophotometer to measure the relationship between the bacterial cell concentration and the absorbance of light. Results using known concentrations are often used to find the cell count of an unknown solution, and this is what will be achieved here.
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