Chapter #10 - Assignment Example

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According to the animation, surgical infections account for what percentage of nosocomial infections?According to the animation, surgical infections account for what percentage of nosocomial infections?
During a 6-month period, 239 cases of pneumonia occurred in a town of 300…
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According to the animation, surgical infections account for what percentage of nosocomial infections?According to the animation, surgical infections account for what percentage of nosocomial infections?
1. 40%
2. 11%
3. 8%
4. 20%
5. 15%
What type of nosocomail infection is likely to arise from intravenous catheterization?
1. Bacteremia
2. Urinary tract
3. Lower respiratory
4. Cutaneous
5. Surgical
How might a patient who is not being treated with an antibiotic still be exposed to an antibiotic?
1. Health care workers being treated with antibiotic may pass the antibiotic on to the patient
2. Antibiotic can be used in aerosols, thereby entering the environment.
3. Visitors currently being treated with antibiotics can pass them on to the patient
Why are invasive procedures likely to increase the risk of nosocomial infections?
1. Invasive procedures must use antibiotics.
2. These procedures are carried out by health care workers, who carry resistant microbes.
3. These procedures allow microbes from the skin to enter the bloodstream of the patient.
4. Invasive procedures require long term hospital says, thereby increasing the number of visitors seen by the patient.
How can health care workers reduce the occurrence of nosocomial infections?
1. Reduce the number of times visit a patient.
2. Limit the number of visitors who can see the patient
3. Administer all medications orally instead of through injections
4. Practice more stringent aseptic techniques.
The number of reported cases of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the united states reached maximum during which period?
1. 1979-1982
2. 1992-1994
3. 1997-2000
4. 2003-2006
Treponema pallidum cannot be spread via fomites, because the bacterium
1. Is so sensitive to drying that it cannot survive away from the body
2. Lives within the host cell, so it would never be found on a fomite.
3. Adheres to fomites in such a way that it cannot be picked up without being destroyed
4. Infects the fomites, causing them to become secondary hosts.
Which of the following is a fomite?
1. A hypodermic needle
2. Droplets from a sneeze
3. Pus
4. Insects
5. Water
Which of the following diseases is NOT spread by droplet infection?
1. Botulism
2. Tuberculosis
3. Measles
4. Common cold
5. Diphtheria
A patient acquires an infection by touching a contaminated door handle. Which mode of transmission best describes this scenario?
1. Vehicle transmission
2. Direct contact transmission
3. Droplet transmission
4. Indirect contact transmission
A dog develops a diarrheal disease after drinking water from creek during a hike with his owner. Which of the following best describes this method of disease transmission?
1. Vehicle transmission
2. Vector transmission
3. Contact transmission
4. There is not enough information to determine the mode of transmission.
Plague is transmitted through the bite of an infected flea. Which of the following best describes this mode of transmission?
1. Direct contact transmission
2. Indirect contact transmission
3. Vector transmission
4. Vehicle transmission
Which of the following is an example of herd immunity?
1. Brucellosis is no longer found in farm animals in the United States.
2. If 70% of the population is immunized against polio, the disease will be essentially absent from the population.
3. Federal law requires that all cattle not immune to anthrax be destroyed.
4. All farm animals used for food must be immunized against all the common agents of disease that infect humans.
The number of people affected by a disease in a given period of time is called the__________
1. Morbidity rate
2. Cohort
3. Notifiable infectious disease rate
4. Mortality rate
Epidemiology is defined as the study of
1. Where a disease occurs
2. How a disease is transmitted
3. When a disease occurs
4. Where and when a disease occurs, and how it is transmitted.
What is the role of epidemiology?
1. To learn what diseases can be caused by respiratory pathogens
2. To learn how to treat and prevent various diseases
3. To learn which organisms cause disease.
4. To learn which medicines are effective at killing pathogens.
A marked seasonality to a disease is often indicative of
1. Certain modes of transmission
2. The presence of carriers
3. A zoonotic infection
4. A seasonal reservoir
Which of the following is NOT a vector important in disease transmission?
1. Formites
2. Insects
3. Ticks
4. Rodents
Cholera and Ieptospirosis are diseases that are usually spread via which method of transmission?
1. Droplet transmission
2. Vehicle transmission
3. Mechanical transmission
4. Biological transmission
The most common organism assicated with urinary tract infections is hospitals is
1. Escherichia Coli.
2. Staphylococcus aureus
3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
4. Candida albicans
He figure shows the incidence of influenza during a typical year. Which letter on the graph indicates the endemic level?
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
1. Endemic - a disease that is constantly present in a population
2. Epidemic – a fraction of the population having a disease at a specific time
3. Pandemic – a disease that affects a large number of people in the world in a short time.
4. Sporadic – a disease that affects a population occasionally
5. Incidence – number of new cases of a disease.
Which of the following would be considered a fomite?
1. An infected toy
2. A tick
3. A fly
4. Contaminated water
Which of the following would be considered a vector?
1. A fly carrying disease from fecal matter to food
2. Saliva that is transmitted between individuals during kissing
3. Water droplets that come from a sneeze from an infected individual
4. Water containing bacteria from fecal matter.
When aerosols containing pathogens spread disease from a distance of less than one meter, it is considered
1. Contact transmission
2. Airborne transmission
3. Waterborne transmission
4. Vector transmission
Which of the following is considered a major category of transmission of disease?
1. Contact transmission
2. Vehicle transmission
3. Vector transmission
4. Contact, vehicle, and vector transmission
Which is an example of vehicle disease transmission?
1. The bite of mosquito containing malaria
2. Touching a telephone with cold viruses on its surface
3. The transmission of MRSA from skin to skin contact
4. The presence of Listeria on undercooked chicken served for dinner
During a 6-month period, 239 cases of pneumonia occurred in a town of 300 people. A clinical case was defined as fever 39°C lasting >2 days with three or more symptoms (i.e., chills, sweats, severe headache, cough, aching muscles/joints, fatigue, or feeling ill). A laboratory-confirmed case was defined as a positive result for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Before the outbreak, 2000 sheep were kept northwest of the town. Of the 20 sheep tested from the flock, 15 were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Wind blew from the northwest, and rainfall was 0.5 cm compared with 7 to 10 cm during each of the previous 3 years.
The situation is an example of
1. Human reservoirs
2. A vector
3. A nonliving reservoir
4. A zoonosis
5. A focal infection
Hospital and nursing home patients are susceptible to serious infections because
1. Many patients have low resistance to infectious diseases
2. The use of antibiotics selects for antibiotic-resistant organisms
3. Many diverse human reservoirs are present
4. All of the above.
Which of the following is/are considered (a) direct contact infections(s)?
1. Syphilis
2. Gonorrhea
3. Skin infectious
4. All of the above
Potential candidates for biological warfare
1. Are generally gram-negative rather than gram-positive
2. Can be virtually and pathogenic bacterium or virus
3. Are eukaryotic rather than prokaryotic
4. Must be genetically engineered to be effective. Read More
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