The Discovery of HIV Name: Institution: The Discovery of HIV HIV and AIDS is an Infectious illness. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which is the name of the disease causative agent, and AIDS is the condition that characterizes the disease. Scientific developments usually do not track straight paths…
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Many people still do not understand the origin of HIV and the truth behind it. This paper, therefore, describes the discovery and origin of HIV, including how the scientific agreements and consensus-building are based on evidences and logics. Diagram: How HIV Invade T-Cell Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/nri/journal/v8/n6/fig_tab/nri2302_F4.html The history of HIV discovery began in late 1970s, when many people believed that epidemic diseases caused by microbes and viruses were never a threat to developed and industrialized countries. In addition, many people also believed that viruses never caused cancer, and nothing existed as retrovirus, which infected humans (Barre-Sinoussi, 2010). These beliefs, however, were successfully approved by scientist researchers, since the attempts to find retroviruses in cancer and other diseases in human beings all ended up in vain. Most retrovirus researchers also turned their work to study oncogenes (Gallo & Montagnier, 2003). The establishment of HIV and AIDS began with the identification of human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2). These viruses were established to cause the abnormal T-cell leukemia. The other contributor to the discovery of HIV and AIDS is the process for growing T lymphocytes in culture for a period that is enough to allow development of putative latent retrovirus (Marlin & Ed, 2011). This research study helped in the separation of T-cell growth factor in Bethesda, Maryland. In Paris, it was demonstrated that interferon can suppress the production of retroviruses in mouse cell. This idea led to the use of anti-interferon serum in the search for human retroviruses (Levy, 1993). Francoise Barre-Sinoussi Francoise Barre-Sinoussi is a young retroviriologist working at the institute Pasteur in Paris. One year earlier, a cluster of Pneumocystis carinii (p jirovecii) causing pneumonia infection had been established among gay men in Los Angeles, USA. This paved way for research and discovery of global AIDS epidemic (Barre-Sinoussi, 2010). Barre-Sinoussi’s began her research work together with Willy Rozenbaum. They focused their research in patients who had not developed AIDS; since they discovered that infected patients lacked CD4 cells if at all the causative agent was attacked T lymphocytes. Barre-Sinoussi, along side other researchers from institute Pasteur, began their work by growing cells from a biopsy that was obtained from a patient. These cells were obtained from a cell culture in the presence of interleukin 2, initially known as T-cell growth factor (Barre-Sinoussi, 2010). They were focused to obtain a retrovirus, and during that period, HTLV-1 was the recognized model of human retrovirus. These researchers, however, did not assume that the virus had the same characteristics as HTLV-1. After two weeks, they realized a reverse transcriptase activity in the culture. Instead of the virus immortalizing other cells, they were found dead. In order to save the virus, they asked for a new sample and quickly added lymphocytes from the culture (Barre-Sinoussi, 2010). Again, they noticed a reversed transcriptase activity in the new sample. Over the following years, tests were developed, the virus characterized, and confirmatory discoveries made. The research community then named this virus as HIV. After the initial discoveries, Barre-Sinoussi still continued with her research work focusing primarily on the
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It takes an undetermined length of time from being infected with the HIV before any symptom of AIDS can be recognized. Oftentimes, cancer develops out of AIDS. It can be in any part of the body. When a number of CD4 cells found in blood samples falls to a level wherein those parts of the immune system cannot withstand the virus attack (under 200 CD4 cells), cancer within the body takes place.
There has been a considerable shift in the responsibilities of a nurse, from clinical settings to leadership roles. The change can be attributed to the ongoing experiments and development of HIV drug and treatment. Although scientist could not develop a cent percent effective medicine for AIDS, it is identified that antiretroviral drugs are capable of reducing both the mortality and morbidity of HIV infection.
According to study, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is currently the leading cause of deaths in female inmates. In most cases, female inmates are poor with little or no education background and are members of ethnic minorities. These categories of women are aged between 25 to 34 years and are unmarried.
The year 2008 witnessed the greatest depression since the great depression of the 1930s. This was because of the irrational exuberance in the housing market that led many people to buy houses that they could not afford. These investors were speculative that the future prices of houses would only rise.
This infection results to the destruction or impairment of the function of the immune system cells. With the progression of the infection, the patient’s immune system grows weaker. This creates room for vulnerability to infections. AIDS is said to be the highest stage of HIV infection since a person with HIV can take 10-15 years prior to the development of AIDS (World Health Organization, 2012).
Unlike the myths around, they are diseases that can infect anyone in spite of his or her race, gender, or age. Based on the period of discovery the diseases could be traced back in Africa from where it is believed to have developed and spread. They destroy the human immune system, specifically the CD4 bearing cells (CD4+ T cells and Macrophages).
At this time, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in some otherwise healthy homosexual men of Los Angeles and 26 cases of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), again in 26 homosexual individuals both in New York and Los Angeles (Klimas et al., 2008).
It has now been believed that HIV originated from monkeys because the simian immunodeficiency virus resembles the two types of HIV. That is HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-2 resembles the virus in white monkeys from western
This essay is discusses one such discovery (atomic bomb) that was a thought as science fiction in the past, ultimately led to a real scientific breakthrough based on that idea of the science fiction author (H.G. Wells).
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