RISK FACTORS AND CAUSES OF CERVICAL CANCER Name: Institution: Course: Tutor: Date: Risk factors and causes of cervical cancer Cervical cancer has been defined to be the abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells along the cervix, which is the part below the uterus as it opens to the vagina…
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805; Fonseca-Moutinho, 2011, para 1-4). About 90% of cervical cancer cases are however direct resultant of HPV virus whiles other causes such as smoking explains the remaining 10% of cervical cancer cases. It should be noted that regular pap tests are recommended, as HPV may stay long in human body after infections before cancerous symptoms start to be exhibited. Symptoms that one may be suffering from the type of cancer include bleeding from vagina and which would not be explained, breeding during sexual intercourse or better whenever a foreign object such as a diaphragm is exposed to the cervical region as well as the painful experience while having an intercourse. It is also a sign whenever one observes bloody vaginal discharge and as such, one should take all precaution in the event of such signs of cervical cancer. Diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer is dependent on regular tests and which would reveal it in the early stages, which would enable it to be treated successfully (O'Malley et al, 2006, p. 2179). Applicable treatments to cancer patients include surgery such as hysterectomy, chemotherapy as well as the radiotherapy. In many instances and depending on the stage of growth, the treatments described can be administered separately, combined or even repeatedly. Nevertheless, there are some procedures in treatment, which have long lasting effects on the victim such as hysterectomy, which renders on incapable of bearing children. The most well known mechanism of protection against cervical cancer is through regular pap tests, which enable one to take precautionary measures once such abnormal cells are noted in a person. Moreover, persons aged below twenty-six years have the capacity to take up a vaccination, which protects one against infection of two main types of HPV (Kraszewski, 2008, p. 14; Thiry et al, 2009, p. 161). Other mechanisms of preventing against cervical cancer is through abstinence or practicing safe sex as sex is one major way that the cancer causing virus are transmitted. With such an introductory background, this paper intends to have an in-depth analysis of risk factors responsible of causing cervical cancer. However, the scope of analysis will be in relation to sexual behavior as a risk factor to contracting HPV which causes cervical cancer and how as a tool, sexual cancer would be adopted to be a primary management tool for cervical cancer. It should be noted that cervical cancer is not a new phenomena within the medical profession. However, dynamics in lifestyles as well as increased research studies have revolutionized the field of medicine and subsequently influenced the knowledge on cervical cancer. Unlike previously, cervical cancer can be diagnosed early, be treated fully and can be effectively prevented than before (Bailie et al, 1998, p.304). Increased awareness and the ease of access of pap test have increasingly played a fundamental role in containing the menace in the modern day societies. Moreover, advancement of medical knowhow has been ascribed with efficiency in cervical cancer management. It is worth noting that there have been developed vaccines, which are administered for protection purposes against the infection. Besides, increased awareness have enabled people to adopt favorable living practices such as abstinence as well as practicing safe s
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There are different types of viruses to exacerbate the cancer such as HPV-16 and 18. The severity of disease depends on the virus types. The infection of this virus can be transmitted both sexually and non-sexually.
Cancer causes harm to the body when cells that are damaged divide without regulation to form tumors Some common types of cancer include breast cancer, brain cancer, leukemia (blood cancer), bone cancer, skin cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and thyroid, just to mention a few.
Cancer becomes harmful to the body when the damaged cells undergo uncontrollable division and form lumps called tumors, if the tumors continue to grow they can interfere with the circulatory, digestive and nervous systems and release hormones that may alter the bodily functions as well.
My paper would narrow down to explore cervical cancer. Cervical cancer refers to cancer of the cervix which is confined to the female reproductive parts (Spencer, 2007). The causes of cancer are not definite. Tremendous research has and is still underway.
An estimated 470,000 new cases occur worldwide each year, with the bulk of these coming from the developing countries (Boking, 2003, p.6). In the United States alone approximately 12,800 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed and almost 4,800 deaths recorded annually (Hartman et al, 2002).
Cancer cells may spread to any part of the body. They either invade adjacent tissue or implant themselves into distant locations in a process called metastasis in which the cancer cells transport themselves through the blood or the lymphatic
(Gaiotti,D., Chung, J., Iglesias, M., Nees, M., Baker, P.D., Evans, C.H., and Woodworth, C.D., 2000)
"Because of its effectiveness, a Pap smear can save your life," said Susan Spires, M.D., assistant professor, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UK College of Medicine.
The author states that diseases which present these aberrant responses to immunity are referred as autoimmune diseases. The concept of horror autotoxicus contradicts autoimmunity existence, by stating that the aspect of bodies mounting immune response against their own tissues was abnormal, and linked to human disease.
These uncontrolled growths and divisions spread to other parts of the body through bloodstream or lymphatic system. Causative factors or agents for cancer directly damage genes or combine with existing genetic faults in a person resulting malignant growths.
Obesity activates multiple signal pathways within the body which in turn play a critical role in cancer pathogenesis. Due to the activation of multiple pathways devising an effective drug treatment strategy to inhibit or reverse all these pathways can be challenging.
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