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The essential features of prokaryotic replication or Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes - Essay Example

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The essential features of prokaryotic replication Cells are mainly differentiated into two classifications namely prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. There are many differences in these two types of cells as well as the genetic processes that they undergo…
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The essential features of prokaryotic replication or Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
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"The essential features of prokaryotic replication or Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes"

Download file to see previous pages The essential features of prokaryotic replication Cells are mainly differentiated into two classifications namely prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. There are many differences in these two types of cells as well as the genetic processes that they undergo. Much research has been done on analyzing the genetic process in the prokaryotic cells and this paper will focus upon the prokaryotic cells with regard to the important features of replication in these cells. The prokaryotic cells are small in diameter and their size ranges from 1 till an average of 5 micrometer. The genetic material of prokaryotic cells is distinct in its own way. The DNA of these cells does not lie within a nuclear envelope and this DNA is also not bounded to histones. A distinct structure where the DNA is present in the prokaryotes is present which is known as nucleoid. These cells also possess only one chromosome which is folded many times for it to fit into the prokaryotic cells. Mitotic division is absent and thus mitosis is not a feature of prokaryotic cells. Specialized cell structures which are surrounded by membranes like mitochondria and lysosomes are also not present in the prokaryotes. The size of the ribosomes in these cells is small and is 70 S. The cell wall of prokaryotic cells is stiff due to the presence of peptidoglycans. Replication is a process whereby new genetic material is formed with the copying of the parent genetic material. It is basically the formation of daughter DNA from the parental DNA strand. It is considered to be a process for the production of offspring and this process needs to be carried out in a much regulated manner to maintain the stability of the gene line so that mutations do not occur as they can serve to produce grave consequences. Prokaryotic replication has mainly been studied and understood by carrying out extensive research on the organism E. coli which is a bacterium. This replication has served to open ways for understanding the mechanisms that occur during the process of replication in eukaryotes as this process is more complicated in the eukaryotic cells. The DNA in prokaryotes is basically round and it has two strands. The initiation point where the replication begins is termed as ori which stands for origin of replication. In different prokaryotes there are different oris which are basically the points where certain double stranded DNA specific proteins attach to certain DNA sequences which are repeated. In E. coli the DnaA which is a specific protein comes and binds to the oriC which is the origin of replication. It is at this point that the unwinding of the double stranded DNA starts to occur. There are many important steps that are required during the separation of the two strands of DNA for replication and the formation of the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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