This paper is put together in preparation of a project that aims to investigate stress conditions under which the (heat shock protein) hsp26 gene is switched on by using a simple -galactosidase assay that changes colour to demonstrate activity. The project will use Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the common baker's yeast, and will seek to determine the various endurance thresholds this eukaryotic organism has for various stress conditions such as heat, cold, osmotic pressure, exposure to ultra violet radiation, exposure to heavy metals and changes in pH levels.
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Download file to see previous pages
The genus includes many other types of yeast important to food production. The taxonomic structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is as follows:
S. cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) is subjected to various environmental stresses during its propagation and industrial application. Yeast being prepared for the baker's facilities is subjected to many such stresses as freezing, frozen storage and thawing of bread dough. Besides this there are the usual stresses of fluctuations in nutrient supply, acidity levels, osmolarity and temperature and exposure to toxic substances like heavy metals and radiation (Schade et al, 2004). This often reduces the yeast's dough-leavening capabilities as well as other viable factors (Rodriguez-Vargas et al, 2002). The same is true when the yeast is applied to other food production techniques as wine-and beer-making. Thus, the negative effects of environmental stress on this species of yeast have great technological and economic impact (Rodriguez-Vargas et al, 2002). ...
Thus, the negative effects of environmental stress on this species of yeast have great technological and economic impact (Rodriguez-Vargas et al, 2002). The organisms, through special stress response factors that act at the transcriptional levels, either induce or repress a set of genes known as the general or environmental or common stress response (ESR) (Schade et al, 2004). Genome wide transcriptional profiling has revealed that 10% of the entire genome is induced or repressed in this stress response (Schade et al, 2004). The induced genes usually are involved in cellular functions such as protein folding and degradation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism while the repressed genes are associated with cell growth-related processes that are suppressed till more convenient circumstances evolve. Such related processes may be RNA metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, secretion and ribosomal performance (Schade et al, 2004).
Stress Regulation in S. cerevisiae
Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae handle a diverse range of stresses by mediation via a penta-nucleotide element called stress response element (STRE). This is quite in line with the 5-nucleotide heat shock regulatory element discussed later in the paper. STRE mediates in conjunction mainly with two transcriptional proteins Msn2p and Msn4p (Treger et al, 1998). Several genes, the induced ones that are also the ones that are instrumental in inactivating the ones that are repressed in the environmental stress response, responding to stress like heat shock, osmotic shock, post-diauxic shift growth and nitrogen starvation are induced to transcriptional activity by sequences containing STRE, especially the Msn2p/Msn4p/STRE pathway (Treger et al, 1998). There are also a few
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
(“Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/science/1503116-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
(Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 Words)
“Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/science/1503116-saccharomyces-cerevisiae.
The author states that the experiment includes the effect of adding magnesium chloride and sodium fluoride separately to two different fermentation mixtures. The process was carried out under controlled environment with the fermentation being carried out in a 42oc incubator and the volume of carbon dioxide evolved measured to the rate of fermentation.
One such product is 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol), a chemical feedstock produced using the metabolic pathway engineering approach. 1,2-Propanediol is a colorless and clear liquid that has a high boiling point1. It is very hygroscopic in pure form. Industrially, it is a very useful product.
International Accounting Standards: Revenue Recognition in construction Industry Introduction The IASB and FASB have been working on producing a new standard on revenue recognition for several years now. One of the industries which have been particularly affected by the uncertainty surrounding the development of the new standard is construction industry and the International Accounting Standard 11 (IAS 11) relating to construction industry is expected to be replaced by the new standard in due course.
Fredrick W Kuhne called these molecules enzymes. With the exception of a few catalytic RNA molecules, all enzymes are proteins. Their catalytic activity depends on the integrity of their native conformation. Some enzymes require no chemical groups for activity other than their amino acid residues.
The first clinic that I chose to become a volunteer was at the Graduate Endodontic Clinic at the University of Washington, School of Dentistry and I have been working there for about a year, from five to seven hours a week. My
But, there was no single yeast strain that could convert all the available sugars, especially D-xylose – a pentose sugar – in the waste to biofuel (ethanol to be more specific). Moreover, the yeast was
The practical was done successfully and the observations were noted. Microbial growth varied depending on the concentrations of the solutions immersed in. Increase in cell number is the meaning of microbial growth (Excerpta medica foundation, 2007).
Isotonic solutions have water concentration outside the cell being equal to solute concentration inside the cell, therefore, water enters the cell and moves out at an equal rate. Lastly, in a hypertonic solution, water concentration is greater inside the cell with the solute concentration is higher outside the cell; water is drawn out.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
with a personal 20% discount.