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Microorganism Responsible for the Disease of Jake - Essay Example

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The purpose of the report “Microorganism Responsible for the Disease of Jake” is to analyze clostridium tetani, which is a Gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium. It flourishes in anaerobic conditions and in shape looks like drumsticks through a microscope…
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Microorganism Responsible for the Disease of Jake
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Download file to see previous pages He also observed that C. tetani can be grown only in the absence of oxygen. He could also ascertain that bacteria do not spread to other organs and tissues rather remain at the place where they are injected into the body. C. tetani release two toxins namely tetanospasmin and tetanolysin. The role of tetanolysin is not very clear; however, it has been found that the toxin called tetanospasmin is the main culprit behind the disease. (Guilfoile 2008) In 1890, Danish scientist, Knud Faber, was successful in isolating tetanus toxin from C. tetani and noticed that toxins developed similar disease symptoms as found to be caused by infection with C. tetani. (Guilfoile 2008) Symptoms and Identification of Disease As per the case details, the blood test report from the lab mentions about the gram-positive rods in Jake's blood. Moreover, stiffness in the abdominal muscles and difficulty in swallowing are the two major symptoms that have surfaced. Jake reported that he was hurt and scratched his leg on scrap metal a week ago while skateboarding. The average period of incubation for tetanus spores is usually found to be 8 days though it could vary from 3 days to 3 weeks. Jake got a wound only a week back when he hurt his leg at the construction site and this incident is a potential cause for him getting infected with tetanus that is how most of the tetanus patients usually get infected. His eating at the local Mexican restaurant does not seem to be a cause for the current symptoms because none of his family members got affected or had any complaint so far of any kind. Jake is a healthy young man with no previous history of muscle stiffness or any nerve disease. Rabies too has somewhat similar symptoms such as difficulty in swallowing but it is ruled out because it is caused by a virus and blood report clearly shows the presence of Gram-positive rods. Bacterial Meningitis is also ruled out because it is a disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria. It is quite likely that Jack was infected with C. tetani bacterial spores when he hurt his leg with scrap metal. Spores got activated and developed into gram-positive bacteria. (Gram-Positive Bacteria 2011), The bacteria produce a powerful toxin called tetanospasmin that affects muscles. These spores are found in soil, faces, dust widely in the environment. Puncture wounds provide spores an easy entry into the human body. That is what seems to have happened in the case of Jake. Tetanus is not transmitted from person to person but acquired from the environment and Jake’s current history suggests so. Epidemiology and Risk Factors Tetanus is found to inflict people worldwide but damp and hot climates offer a fertile ground for the C. tetani to flourish. Its spores are widely found in the faces of animals such as dogs, rats, sheep and other cattle. Usually, spores get entry into the body through wounds and puncture. Widespread immunization in the U.S has made this disease a rarity with 50 or less numb of cases every year. Drug addicts are at high risk for tetanus. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt16-tetanus.pdf Between the period 2001 and 2008, out of the 233 cases of tetanus patients only 26 deaths were reported in the U.S including one case of neonatal death. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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