This paper discusses the white privilege founded on institutional racism, which is a major challenge for the international student fraternity in American universities such as the University of Massachusetts Lowell where the author has studied…
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This paper illustrates that in 2004, statistics indicated that per capita income for Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics in the USA are $25,203, $16035, and $14,106 respectively. Similarly, the 2005 unemployment rate for Whites, African Americans and Hispanics was 4%, 8.5%, and 4.5% respectively. Those covered by private health insurance for Whites, African Americans and Hispanics for the same period were 71.4%, 53.9%, and 41.7% respectively. The education sector also suffers from institutional racism. Education continues to gain value in modern society and parents would like their children to get the best possible quality of education. Consequently, there has been an increase in the number of international students seeking further education in foreign continents such as America and Europe. Education in these continents is perceived to be of higher quality. These students are presented with unique opportunities for international exposure even as they greatly contribute to the economic growth of the host countries. At the same time, international students are faced with a myriad of challenges beyond their control and sometimes they have to endure until the end of their studies. Institutional racism refers to patterns in the society whereby adverse, unfavorable or oppressive conditions are applied towards certain identifiable groups based on their race, ethnicity and skin color. As an international student from the United Arab Emirates and studying at the University of Massachusetts Lowell, the author encountered institutionalized racism in various forms, to the detriment of international students. They have incidences for instance where black and other colored students are physically abused by their white counterparts on campus. A recent episode of open campus racism occurred when some students believed to belong to a fraternity threw a party in commemoration of Martin Luther King’s birth and black students were mocked. Nonblack students donned loose-fitting basketball shirts, flashed signs of gangs and drunk from hollowed-out watermelons to send a message of mockery to their black counterparts. Although the entire student fraternity received the incident with disbelief, outrage, and contempt, it showed how deep racism is institutionalized in the education system.
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(Institutional Racism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
“Institutional Racism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/anthropology/1663180-editing-institutional-racism.
“Institutions can respond to Blacks and Whites differently. Institutional behaviour can injure Blacks, and when it does, it is racist in outcome, if not in intent” (Randall, 2009). The absence of a labor party, weak labor unions and fragmented governmental systems etc are often mentioned as the evidences of institutional racism in America.
These setbacks affect people in their places of work, and their habitual places. It is not clear how these issues are significant problems, because the people purporting the issues deny knowing they exist. With the help, of individuals that are working in places that the organizations practice these illicit practices, the issues have come to light, and it has been explained how they affect individuals negatively.
The author states that under white supremacy, people belonging to the white race are considered as superior, they are able to secure higher positions and positions with much authority as compared to the positions offered to non-whites. Due to their access to authoritative positions, they have more access to favorable resources such as education and wealth.
This racism is not only confined within the socio- economically backward section of the population but has crept into various strata of the society and institutions, no matter private or public, are no exceptions. If educational institutions are taken into account in a first world country like Canada we find a support to this view.
Racism serves to both discriminate against ethnic minorities and to maintain advantages and benefits for majorities. Some examples of racism are obvious, such as graffiti, ethnic "jokes", or physical violence. Unfortunately, problems of racism are often ignored because people do not know how to deal with them.
The term 'Institutional Racism' was introduced by Carmichael and Hamilton in 1968 and they saw it as 'an analytical tool to examine how institutions can operate along racist lines without acknowledging or even recognising this.'
Institutional Racism is connected with organisations and institutions and is unconnected with individualistic views or behaviour.
As a result, sociologists such as Max Weber continually used this concept to give explanations on why particular groups of people were treated in negative ways (Weber, 1971). For instance, history has recorded that
As the paper stresses institutional racism denotes patterns, practices, procedures and policies that operate within a social institution to disadvantage non members of the racial or a certain ethnic group. The institution then places a great importance on the dominant group and the minority group is viewed as being inferior.
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