Anthropological studies of the relationship between concepts of self identity and language use preference can help teachers better address the potential barriers to successful acquisition of English language skills by improving their prospects for thriving in mainstream American…
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This is an English Second Language (ESL) program designed to increase the English proficiency of Mexican immigrant children so that by the time they reached high school age they could be successful in a unilingual English instructional setting. The other articles (Smith-Hefner) in 1988 and 1989 describes efforts in the Boston area for Khmer children from Cambodia to be provided instruction in their native language as well as English for 3 or 4 years again until they were deemed sufficiently proficient in English to benefit from mainstream unilingual English instruction.
The data from the studies showed that language use preferences of both immigrant groups were strongly linked to aspirations of success in mainstream American society. Although they showed some degree of pride in their respective cultural heritages, there was also the realization even among children (implicitly if not consciously) that a high degree of proficiency in English
As well as at least some acceptance of American social norms was essential to thriving in their new homeland especially in attaining higher socioeconomic occupations. In the Fuller study the parents of the 4 Mexican heritage children had mixed views of the importance of education, but the children expressed uniformly strong evaluations of it at least on a lip service level. .The 2 girls as time progressed tended to use more English in conversations with adult teachers and with each other as best friends. The 2 boys tended to use more Spanish especially to each other even though they were at least as proficient in English as the girls. This reflects that although they recognized the importance of English fluency in their future endeavors as breadwinners, they were more conscious of maintaining their Mexican heritage in their social relations than the girls. The Smith-Hefner study states that most Khmer parents placed a high value on both the acquisition of English fluency and
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This, says Kelley, causes stereotyping of the “underclass” as per the social scientists own definition of the term and, therefore, the reality of different cultures within that same underclass is not discussed among them. For instance, social scientists in the 60s, generalizes all black culture as ghetto culture, claiming it to be a result of the racist attitude of the society.
Risk factors are the cultural conditions that are associated with an increase in the likelihood of diseases, while protective factors are the cultural conditions or behavior that reduces the risk of diseases. Thus, the two of them are different in all ramifications.
Biological anthropology is the second sub-discipline of anthropology. This sub-discipline contributes to the study of human relations through offering an insight into the physical, genetic, and physiological nature of man and his hominid ancestors. This branch of anthropology therefore sheds more light on the aspect of human evolution (Lakeside University, 2012).
The early Stone Age man used oldowan tools to crack nuts and hunt small animals for food. At this stage, man was believed to be at a chimpanzee community. The tools used at this stage were crude and ineffective because they were not well shaped to increase efficiency in man’s economic world (Haviland, Prins & McBride 180).
Anthropologists in general look at cross-cultural differences in social institutions, cultural beliefs, and communication styles. In fact in recent years with the growing globalization, this subject has gained much more importance. Knowledge about human diversity is helpful especially in the case of global organizations.
In short, everything related to man comes under the scope of anthropology. It is important to see the world through an anthropological lens because one can know better about one’s own past and present and can see for oneself where he/she
The concept of culture has a rich theoretical background. Its definition, framework, interpretation and application differ according to perspective. Diversity in culture is eminent and is closely evaluated in terms of their impact and
These are the people who originally lived in some region before the times of colonization or a nation’s transformation, and possess different culture, tradition and language. Several studies have been and are still being
Additionally, the hunter-gatherers built villages and towns. This led to change of their environment by adoption of specialized food crop cultivation. This led to excessive food production, which in turn led to trade in surplus
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