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It remained a hypothesis until in 1980s when scientific proof of linkages between mitochondrial DNA and samples taken from fossilized specimens were seen to match. Darwin suggested this model after studying the behavior of African apes at the London zoo. He postulated that all Homo sapiens can trace their roots to east Africa from where they originated and moved to other parts of the world. This was termed as ‘monogenism’ or single origin. It was not until the 1980s that a scientist named Allan Wilson and his team was able to find substantial proof of this by comparing the mitochondrial DNA of humans to that of chimpanzees. He concluded that the uncanny resemblance and scarce diversity between the two samples of mitochondrial DNA strongly suggests an evolutionary link between the two. Keeping in mind the limited resources of that time, scientists were able to conclude in 1990s that this evolution probably took place about 150,000 years ago in East Africa.
Another important step in proving this theory to be accurate was the use of Y- chromosome that showed its first signs of diversity after the first migration from Africa. It is important to understand that the reason why only mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome were chosen to conduct this genomic reconstruction was because the mitochondrial DNA is passed from the mother to the child without any mutations so that it is safe to say that the mitochondrial DNA that we possess is very much like the mitochondrial DNA of Eve (Jones & John, 2007). Similarly, the Y-chromosome in every adult male shows the least degree of mutation and is very similar to that of Adam himself. Therefore, the tracing of human evolution is most accurate when these two chromosomes are used for genetic reconstruction of ancient Homo sapiens.
The second part of this theory discusses how the Homo sapiens travelled out of Africa and expanded to other parts of the world.
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Neanderthals are the early hominids who have existed on the planet earth about 250,000 years to 300,000 years ago, and are geographically believed to be located in Eurasia, somewhere near Western Europe and the Near East (Schmit 2003). Moreover, the sudden extinction of these species though still remains a mystery, but according to the anthropological studies it owes much to various factors which will be discussed in detail in this paper.
Enlightenment people advocated for the application of the scientific method to understand issues in life. Borrowing from Newton’s methods, they argued that they could use reason to find laws that govern human society. This movement came to a climax in the 18th century after as series of intellectual development that had began in the 17th century.
However, new archaeological evidence seems to suggest that in fact the Neandertals competed with modern man for thousands of years in Europe before they eventually disappeared (Hardy et al 45). The modern archeological debate is the question of the role that Neandertals played in the evolution of anatomically modern man.
The fact that modern humans developed can be considered to be a great feat of resilience and adaptation on the part of human which has enabled the species to thrive and ensured that it has propagated itself all over the world.
In one of the last lines of Wright's book, it is written that "Our species is an Ice Age Hunter, only half evolved towards intelligence, clever but seldom wise" (Wright 207-208). Wright claims that human evolution is pretty much the same although technology is adapting and has always been revolving with the times.
On this day, the 29th of May 1453, when the last of the Byzantine kings fell to the Ottomans, Europe resurfaced from the abyss of the middle ages. The fall of Constantinople was also significant in terms of
It is most likely that our ancestors mated with other members of closely related species hence the inheritance of genes. A popular theory claims that human beings evolved from Africa and spread to other parts of the country about 100,000 years ago.
These ‘general politics’ and ‘regimes of truth’ are the result of scientific discourse and institutions, and are reinforced (and redefined) constantly through the education system, the media, and the flux of political