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Principles of Physical Anthropology - Essay Example

Physical anthropology occurs with a clear consideration of context of human behavior and culture the process, therefore, acts a link between biological and social sciences. Physical anthropology as a field of study focuses on many areas including palaeoanthropology, primatologist, skeletal biology, and forensic anthropologists, which are significant in reaching at a conclusion concerning identification of a given species (Noonan, 2010). Anthropology provides an understanding on variations and their significance, the approaches to the problems of evolution, specialization and the concept of race in human population. The most studied human species is the Homo sapiens, which is known to have originated from East Africa 200, 000 year before migrating to other parts globally (Noonan, 2010). Sapiens are a Latin word meaning intelligent Homo sapiens evolved from Homo erectus resulting from skull expansion. The species adopted improved technologies in stone tools, this transition lead to their migration out of Africa. The migration of Homo sapiens from East Africa resulted to reduction of a number for this species owing to the escalating climatic conditions. Those who survived use their intelligence in the invention of new tools, new sources of food and invention of new ways of keeping warm. These changes resulted to separation leading to the Great Leap Forward, which later became the stable behavioral modernity. There was a rapid increase in sophisticated behavior and tool making followed by migration

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out of Africa towards the Middle Paleolithic. The differences in Homo sapiens and other archaic human, results from nucleotide variations and interbreeding, which might have resulted from geographical factors such archaic human population including Denisova and hominins (Noonan, 2010). Neandertals a subspecies of Homo sapiens and are known to be having close relations to modern human, differing in DNA. Their remains including bones and stone tools are believed to have been left by the Neandertals were found in parts of Western Europe and central Asia. Results from genetic research show that Neanderthals contributed significantly to the DNA of modern human this was possible through interbreeding (Noonan, 2010). This is the reason behind the classification of this species as a subspecies of Homo sapiens rather than a different type of species. Cultural practices of Homo sapiens were significant in enabling human population in adapting to new environments hence their survival even under harsh environmental conditions. They managed to utilize elements of culture in improving and maintaining their ecosystem, enabling them to cope with harsh conditions. Change in life style by these species in their new environment resulting from change of diet resulted in the emergence of infectious diseases, which led to many deaths hence reduction in population. Race is significant in classifying human into groups based on anatomical, genetic, geographical, linguistic, and social affiliations. During the early days, human belong to the same species that are for Homo sapiens and thus the community was that of a one-race society. This was before the separation into different parts of the world leading to the emergence of many races thus leading to variations in beliefs and cultures. Physical anthropology is insufficient in the provision of valuable information for the


Principles of Physical Anthropology Name Professor Course Date Physical anthropology is a field dealing with the evolution of human beings, their adaptations to environmental stress and variability. Anthropology concentrates on Homo sapiens and the biological species they belong, evolution of these species, development of their mode of communication; commonly known as culture…
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