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Anthropology - Essay Example

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If the phenotype affecting reproduction or survivorship is genetically based, then selection can remove genotypes indirectly by removing phenotypes.
ABO blood group systems areblood types A, B, AB, or O in human beings blood types called polymorphism, which is defined as a genetic locus with two or more alleles that occur in large frequency in a given population. ABO blood group is not only a significant blood factor in clinical applications entailing blood transfusions but also proving to be a salient asset for determining human migration patterns and origins. Clinal distributions are generally thought to reflect micro evolutionary influences of natural selection and/or gene flow. A clineis a gradual change in the frequency of a trait in populations dispersed over geographical space.
Lactose is the disaccharide component in milk. This component consists of glucose and galactose, which are monosaccharides. Lactase is required so as to digest lactose. The production of lactase production is known to decrease with age, a process that results in lactose intolerance. High concentrations of lactose are found to occur naturally in dairy products as well as in processed food. Lactose intolerance occurs in individuals with low or insufficient levels of lactase, which is an enzyme responsible for the catalysis of lactose. This is an hydrolysis process where lactose is broken down into glucose and galactose in the digestive system. Adaptability is the ability to rapidly cope to changing environmental

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Anthropologists in general look at cross-cultural differences in social institutions, cultural beliefs, and communication styles. In fact in recent years with the growing globalization, this subject has gained much more importance. Knowledge about human diversity is helpful especially in the case of global organizations.
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In short, everything related to man comes under the scope of anthropology. It is important to see the world through an anthropological lens because one can know better about one’s own past and present and can see for oneself where he/she
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Alleles are inherited in the similar manner unless their nature is altered by some external forces encompassing environmental factors causing mutation, a genetic drift, meiotic cycle, gene flow or due to non-random mating. Mutation brings modification in the
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conditions, which has made it possible for organisms to survive in most regions of the world.  Acclimatization involves a change in the population of a species. When traveling to high altitudes, our bodies adjust so that there is enough oxygen to our cells. A healthy acclimated person can tolerate extended exposure to virtually any natural weather-related heat stress. Where chronic heat exposure induces a fairly uniform pattern of thermoregulatory adjustments, chronic cold exposure induces three different patterns of adaptation.  The low air pressure found at high altitudes makes it difficult for oxygen to be supplied in the vascular system hence causing high altitude sickness. Almost all living primates have prehensile hands and feet, and most have five digits on these appendages. Primates have particularly flexible and limber shoulders and hip joints. Primates have a nail on the first digit. Primates also possess a clavicle, or collarbone. All primates have the tendency to be erect. Most species stand on the two hind legs like humans. Examinations based on arboreal hypothesis reveal that claws, which are used as climbing tools, are superior to bare hands, fingernails and feet. This makes them beneficial for the purposes of transporting larger bodies through tree branches. In relation to visual predation hypothesis, stereoscopic vision is used in estimating the distance and size of food sources. Orbital convergence of the eyes results in a conditions known as reduced olfaction. Niche separation between species form stable mixed species groups to examine the partitioning of resources and how the separation affects the stability of such groups. Ecological theory states that whenever two closely related species having strongly equally ecological requirements occur sympatrically, a lead into interspecific competition that drives one of the two species to local extinction or character

Summary

The relationship between phenotype, genotype, and natural selection is essential to the knowledge of heredity and development organism. …
Anthropology
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