Date The Four Forces of Evolution Change and evolution are two different terms. A person may change but may not evolve while the whole population may change and evolve into a new society. Changes are part of any individual’s lives but when the changes seems to be adopted by the whole population and completely transformed its whole entities, this is called evolution…
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In evolution, the population has a greater significance because it refers to the change in the characteristics of a population over many generations and not the individual change during their lifetimes (Fogiel 908). As stated earlier, an individual cannot evolve but a population can as allelic frequencies (genetic make up and the expression of the developmental potential) of a given population can change over time. This is called microevolution which accounts for the diversity of life on earth. But when do we become aware of evolution and how do we began to understand its concept? The molecular basis of evolution started with the discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules in 1953. Through biological reproduction, each living organisms inherit a combination of genes from biological parents and creates a unique new individual (Haviland, Prins, Walrath, and McBride 27). Aside from this biological reproduction, creation theories from different religions around the world also explains the diversity of life. ...
Mutation is the random alteration of genetic material that produces new variation (Haviland, Prins, Walrath, and McBride 40). With random mutations or variation, population can change over time in accordance with the changes that occurred in the environment because the creation of a new allele may create a modified protein for a new biological task. In humans, for instance, the only possible evolutionary mutations occurred in sex cells when mistakes occur during copying and cell division. Thus, this is in contrary with the layman’s conception of mutation and evolution as mutations and evolutions arise continuously in all species. Mutations have positive and negative effects but most of it are neutral in nature. Some of the negative effects are the results of the presence of mutant genes, a gene abnormality that leads to certain hereditary disorders like muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, Parkinson’s disease, etc. While cellular mutations directly involve genetic factors, environmental factors may also play a vital role in the occurrence of mutation. Antibiotics, dyes, chemicals used in the preservation of food, and radiation are just a few examples. Research also suggests that the amount of stress a human can endure increases the mutation traits needed for adaptation (Haviland, Prins, Walrath, and McBride 40). Meanwhile, genetic drift refers to the evolutionary force of chance fluctuations of allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population (Haviland, Prins, Walrath, and McBride 41). In short, this refers to the changes at the population level because of “chance events” such as disasters that can kill a greater number of population. A perfect example of genetic drift is the founder effects – a case that
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Evolution theory has it, that human beings have been changing over millions of years. The question now remains, on what the future holds for the evolution of human beings. It is in this regard, that this essay shall endeavor to explain the predictions on the future of evolution of human beings with respect to the major evolutionary processes in human history.
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