The Anthropology of Food: Consuming Passions Instructor name: Unit Name: Date: Introduction The study of eating and food is said to have a long history in anthropology. Culture and Communication (2004) 1 asserts that these two studies are important for our sake because food is generally important for every one’s survival…
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Individuals who post these adverts equip readers with accessible, sophisticated, entertainment tools and advice for socializing and relaxing with friends and families. In that regard, this paper aims at exploring what McDonald’s food advertisement communicates in its particular context, including features such as tradition, hierarchy, tradition, ethnicity, race, youth/age, and gender. Further the paper will explain units of food as a system of communication, in reference to Roland Barthes words and Claude Levi-Strauss who also compare food as a language, and the main elements of language and to what degree they are universal or not in terms of the basic components of cooking as a cultural phenomenon. It will also expound on what Mary Douglas suggest behind the dietary laws, and the analogy between the altar and the table that she suggests and lastly, the advantages of considering food as a system of communication/language and what gets lefts out. McDonald’s food advertisements have been beautifully presented in high quality, perfect and oversized bound publication in order to create a guide for cooking as well as entertaining the reader from time to time. Brandweek, (1999) 2 explains that from a media perspective both food and drink are extraordinary products in which advertisers have to outstand their production value with high-quality, oversized stock to better advertise their products. This is why; the McDonald’s Menu has been advertised on a 60% of the space in editorial. It targets youth, adults and children to the extent a different demographic, teenage men and women, because of the trendy imagery, sexualised messages which targets the men desire for meat-filled burgers. McDonald’s has managed to advertise junk food in many regions worldwide especially in billboards, internet, and television in order to reach their customers. It advertises burgers, fried chicken, French fries and pizzas as some of the happy meals. Additionally, it has made use of signage and billboards, using different slogans for most regions and countries. Chestnutt (2005) 3 claims that McDonald is one of the most successful junk food advertisers, whose image portrays a real and warm slice of life every day. The advertisement shows real people eating, inspite of the season and period. The company’s food is also seen to be packaged with unique design and inspirational slogans with warmer and darker colors, which are more realistic in the photos of their products that are seen on glasses and plates. Food is an important mode of symbolic expression that is used to convey a variety of beliefs and feelings that are not-“food”. Kahn 1994(1986). (Barthes 28) also claims that “Sugar is not just a foodstuff, even when it is used in conjunction with other food; it is, if you will, an attitude.’ Bound to certain usages, certain protocols’, that has to do with more than food. Food is.” Not only a collection of items that can be used for nutritional or statistical studies. It is also, and at the same time, a system of communication, a body of images protocol of usages, situations, and behavior. Food as a system of communication means that, communicating in terms of food is a transparent and open way that can be based on the scientific advice which contributes to food communication as a bridge between consumer and science. Additionally, it also raises awareness as well as explains the implications of
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This, says Kelley, causes stereotyping of the “underclass” as per the social scientists own definition of the term and, therefore, the reality of different cultures within that same underclass is not discussed among them. For instance, social scientists in the 60s, generalizes all black culture as ghetto culture, claiming it to be a result of the racist attitude of the society.
However, soon after humans cease living off wild berries, this basic human need has become highly constructed (Counihan & Esterik, 2008, p.30). Various preparation techniques and habits have become a significant part of this food consuming system. Psychologically speaking, this new inclusion of food consumption habits and other related habits serve as a communication system between or among the consumers.
In this context, the problem of famine politics seems one of the most discussed. THESIS STATEMENT: While both democratic and autocratic states experience political famines, it is autocracies that allow greatest famine mortality and are heavier affected by famines.
Because of this, anthropologist has dedicated most of their research into understanding the socio-cultural, behavioral and political-economic factors related to food and nutrition (Counihan Carole & Van Esterik 2007: 53). This research paper is dedicated towards elucidating the associations between politics and famine.
The relationship between phenotype, genotype, and natural selection is essential to the knowledge of heredity and development organism. Phenotype refers to the traits that an individual has, and is determined by the genotype and the environment. Natural selection comprises of the process which results from differences in reproductive successes among unique individual phenotypes living at a given generation and eventually resulting in a biased representation of genes at the next generation.Natural selection acts on phenotypes because differential reproduction and survivorship depend on phenotype.
Anthropologists in general look at cross-cultural differences in social institutions, cultural beliefs, and communication styles. In fact in recent years with the growing globalization, this subject has gained much more importance. Knowledge about human diversity is helpful especially in the case of global organizations.
These are the people who originally lived in some region before the times of colonization or a nation’s transformation, and possess different culture, tradition and language. Several studies have been and are still being
Additionally, the hunter-gatherers built villages and towns. This led to change of their environment by adoption of specialized food crop cultivation. This led to excessive food production, which in turn led to trade in surplus