Running Head: Politics of Famines Politics of Famines [Name] [University] Introduction The history of mankind is fraught with stories of famines. These were times of crops failures, supplies runouts, and massive starvations. In the area of studies on famine, there does not exist consensus among researchers on the issues related to the famine causes, famine effects, preventive measures to tackle famines, etc…
Download file to see previous pages...
Famine and its Classification Just as there are many views on famines and the issues related to famines, scholars have produced a variety of definitions of famine. Generally, famine is defined as “widespread and extensive scarcity of food applicable to any species that results in malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality” (Glawe, 2009). According to Brown and Eckholm, famine can be understood as “a sudden, sharp reduction in the food supply in any particular geographic locale has usu-ally resulted in widespread hunger and famine” (Brown and Eckholm, 1974, p. 25). Similarly, Aykroyd observes the causes of famine in the following way: “two years of poor rainfall may be followed by a third year without any rain at all. It is then that famine makes its appearance…” (Ackroyd, 1974, p. 1). Here, as one can easily see, famine is interpreted as an act of nature. Yet, the realities of the twentieth century with its horrible famines in various parts of the world, led the scholars to contesting the views discussed in the previous paragraph. Importantly, Amartya Sen, the prominent economist and distinguished philosopher, who is known to have lived through the famine in Bengal in 1943 worked out a new understanding of famine. A member of a well-known family that helped the destitute during the famine, Sen opens his highly influential and super original book entitled Poverty and Famines (published in 1981) with the view that ‘starvation is the characteristic of some people not having enough food to eat. It is not the characteristic of there being not enough food to eat.’ (Sen, 1981, p. 2). Putting it bluntly, the author contends that the shortage of food supplies is perceived as a necessary condition for famines start, but it is not a sufficient one. Political reasons, e.g. entitlements that include the command over supplies of food and other non-edible commodities, matters greatly. Therefore, according to Sen, famines can be so easily prevented by human activity that “it is amazing that they are allowed to occur at all” (Sen, 2001, p. 75). As it can be easily inferred, the modern understanding of famine is based on its underlying political ingredient. The classification of famines offered by Bulliet et al allows distinguishing between natural, commercial, and political famines (Bulliet et al, 2010, p. 843). As it can be easily seen, this classification is rather successful since it enables to combine both, first-generation and second-generation interpretations of famine, and stresses their historical background. Natural famines occurred whenever rains failed for a couple of years in succession. For example, in India, which is particularly dependent on monsoon rains, famines have been known to strike twice a century or even oftener. In the eighteenth century, several million people died of starvation during three famines in India. Commercial famines are known to have been caused by the merchants’ interests and lack of government regulation of free enterprise. Despite the fact that there existed lots of ways to transport food to famine affected areas, merchants seeking great profits artificially held up transportation of grains to the poor regions until they found out the price was high enough. Then, based on commercial interest, food was transported to those areas that could afford buying it or exported to other
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
(“The Anthropology of Food: Consuming Passions Research Paper”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/anthropology/1435912-the-anthropology-of-food-consuming-passions
(The Anthropology of Food: Consuming Passions Research Paper)
“The Anthropology of Food: Consuming Passions Research Paper”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/anthropology/1435912-the-anthropology-of-food-consuming-passions.
In every culture a variety of characteristics play their part, whether its how a culture is adaptive, shared or integrated. Within the pages of Beauty Up by Laura Miller are indications of how a culture can change over time. I found that through inner and foreign influences the aesthetic culture of Japan has been constantly modified.
With all of the trial and strife plaguing people these days, it’s easy to think that no sense of humor could continue to survive. As the saying goes, what is there to laugh about? Yet what we see during these difficult times is a revival of humor rather than a failing of humor.
It also studies the occurrence of societies and also studies the reasons behind the destruction of different societies. In other words anthropology is an in depth analysis of the past and present of human beings. Evolution is defined as the changes which occur over a period of time such as changes in the depth and flow of rivers, changes in the forms of natures and climatic changes etc.
This subfield is valuable for debate and advanced research in anthropological methods and theory. Since food studies have been termed as symbolic, political, social value creations, it is dedicated to the art of inspiring and entertaining readers with their latest information and recipes.
Any culture is said to be incomplete without having its own ‘food-culture’. From the turkey of thanksgiving in USA to the Sushi in Japan, each of them is a symbol of their own food culture. Undoubtedly, food can be termed as a defining character of any culture.
Therefore, to implement a local diet, one needs to follow the guidelines proposed by Priebe (2011) in the article entitled “An Overview of the 100-Mile Diet” published online in ecolife. As noted, a local diet could be implemented through observing the following steps: (1) starting simple; (2) try to connect with local farmers; (3) endeavor to grow vegetables in one’s own garden; (4) when shopping locally, purchase in bulk and learn how to preserve; and (5) just take things in stride and relax (Priebe, 2011).
Thus, the memories of food upon which one is raised forms the basis for a person’s identity, and this identity is often based upon the kind of ethnic cuisine served in one’s household. As James states, what one eat sets one apart from others in the cultural realm.
The paper will investigate the popular claim that alcohol helps individuals to gain heat energy by increasing their body temperatures. Experiments will be conducted to determine the various effects of ethanol on body temperature in order to give a scientific backing to any claims of alcohol effects.
article reveals the way in which the human remains were dumped in the Fresh Kills landfill and details how officials arranged to have the unidentified victim remains to be housed in a museum complex (Colwell-Chanthaphoh & Greenwald, 2011).
I believe the article depicts how a
Therefore, anthropologists have opted to use practical situations in finding out solutions to their impending problems. This paper seeks to link up the diversified existing cultural groups and their mostly consumed food. Therefore,
1 Pages(250 words)Research Paper
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic The Anthropology of Food: Consuming Passions for FREE!